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佛陀的启示 第一章 佛教的宗教态度 Chapter I. The Buddhist Attitude of Mind
 
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背景色

Chapter I. The Buddhist Attitude of Mind

第一章 佛教的宗教态度

Among the founders of religions the Buddha (if we are permitted to call him the founder of a religion in the popular sense of the term) was the only teacher who did not claim to be other than a human being, pure and simple. Other teachers were either God, or his incarnations in different forms, or inspired by him. The Buddha was not only a human being; he claimed no inspiration from any god or external power either. He attributed all his realization, attainments and achievements to human endeavour and human intelligence. A man and only a man can become a Buddha. Every man has within himself the potentiality of becoming a Buddha, if he so wills it and endeavours. We can call the Buddha a man par excellence. He was so perfect in his 'human-ness' that he came to be regarded later in popular religion almost as 'super-human'.

在所有的宗教创始人中,佛(假使我们也可以用世俗所谓的宗教创始人来称呼他的话)是唯一不以非人自居的导师。他自承只是一个单纯的人类,不若其他宗教的教主,或以神灵自居,或自诩为神的各种化身,或者自命受了圣灵的感动。佛不但只是人类的一员,而且他也从不自称曾受任何神灵或外力的感应。他将他的觉悟、成就、及造诣,完全归功于人的努力与才智。人,而且只有人才能成佛。只要他肯发愿努力,每个人身内都潜伏有成佛的势能。我们可以称佛为一位卓绝群伦的人。因为他的‘人性’完美至极,以至在后世通俗宗教的眼光中,他几乎被视为超人。

Man's position, according to Buddhism, is supreme. Man is his own master, and there is no higher being or power that sits in judgment over his destiny.

依照佛教的看法,人类的地位是至高无上的。人是自己的主宰,在他上面再没有更高级的生灵或力量,可以裁决他的命运。

'One is one's own refuge, who else could be the refuge?[1] said the Buddha. He admonished his disciples to 'be a refuge to themselves', and never to seek refuge in or help from anybody else. [2] He taught, encouraged and stimulated each person to develop himself and to work out his own emancipation, for man has the power to liberate himself from all bondage through his own personal effort and intelligence. The Buddha says: 'You should do your work, for the Tathāgatas[3] only teach the way.' [4] If the Buddha is to be called a 'saviour' at all, it is only in the sense that he discovered and showed the Path to Liberation, Nirvāna. But we must tread the Path ourselves.

‘人应当自作皈依,还有谁可以作他的皈依呢?’﹝注一﹞佛曾经这样说过。他训诫他的弟子们,当自作皈依,切不可向任何人求皈依或援手。﹝注二﹞他教导、鼓励、激劝每一个人要发展自己,努力自求解脱;因为人的努力与才智,足可以自解缠缚。佛说:‘工作须你们去做,因为如来﹝注三﹞只能教你们该走的路。’﹝注四﹞我们把佛叫做‘救主’,意思是说,他是发现以及指点我们解脱之道——涅槃——的人而已。这道还是需要我们自己去践履的。

It is on this principle of individual responsibility that the Buddha allows freedom to his disciples. In the Mahāparinibbāna-sutta the Buddha says that he never thought of controlling the Sangha (Order of Monks)[5] , nor he did want the Sangha to depend on him. He said that there was no esoteric doctrine in his teaching, nothing hidden in the 'closed-fist of the teacher' (ācariya-muttbi), or to put it in the other words, there never was anything 'up his sleeve'. [6]

在这条责任自负的原则下,佛的弟子们是自由的。在《大般涅槃经》中,佛说他从不想到约束僧伽(和合僧团)﹝注五﹞,他也不要僧伽依赖他。他说,在他的教诫中,绝无秘密法门。他紧握的拳中,并没有隐藏著东西。换言之,他一向没有什么‘袖中秘笈’。﹝注六﹞

The freedom of thought allowed by the Buddha is unheard of elsewhere in the history of religions. This freedom is necessary because, according to the Buddha, man's emancipation depends on his own realization of Truth, and not on the benevolent grace of a god or any external power as a reward for his obedient good behaviour.

佛准许他的弟子们自由思想,这在宗教史中是向所未闻的。这种自由是必要的,因为,根据佛的话,人类的解脱全赖个人对真理的自觉,而不是因为他顺从神的意旨,行为端正,因此靠神或其他外力的恩典,而得到解脱以为酬佣。

The Buddha once visited a small town called Kesaputta in the kingdom of Kosala. The inhabitants of his town were known by the common name Kālāma. When they heard that the Buddha was in their town, the Kālāmas paid him a visit, and told him:

佛有一次到憍萨罗国一个叫做羁舍子的小镇去访问,那镇上居民的族姓是迦摩罗。他们听说佛来了,就去拜见他,向他说:

'Sir, there are some recluses and brāhmanas who visit Kesaputta. They explain and illumine only their own doctrines, and despise, condemn and spurn others' doctrines. Then come other recluses and brāhmanas, and they, too, in their turn, explain and illumine only their own doctrines, and despise, condemn and spurn others' doctrines. But, for us, Sir, we have always doubt and perplexity as to who among these venerable recluses and brāhmanas spoke the truth, and who spoke falsehood.'

‘世尊,有些梵志和出家人来到羁舍子,他们只解说弘扬他们自己的教义,而蔑视、非难、排斥其他教义。然后又来了其他的梵志出家人,他们也同样的只解说弘扬他们自己的教义,而蔑视、非难、排斥其他教义。但是对我们来说,我们一直都怀疑而感到迷茫,不知道在这些可敬的梵志方外人中,到底谁说的是真实语,谁说的是妄语。’

Then the Buddha gave them this advice unique in the history of regilions:

于是,佛给了他们如此的教诫,在宗教史上也是独一无二的:

'Yes, Kālāmas, it is proper that you have doubt, that you have perplexity, for a doubt has arisen in a matter which is doubtful. Now, look you Kālāmas, do not be led by reports, or tradition or hearsay. Be not led by the authority of religious texts, nor by mere logic or inference, nor by considering appearances, nor by the delight in speculative opinions, nor by seeming possibilities, nor by the idea: 'this is our teacher'. But, O Kālāmas, when you know for yourselves that certain things are unwholesome (akusala), and wrong, and bad, the give them up… And when you know yourselves that certain things are wholesome (kusala) and good, then accept them and follow them' [7]

‘是的,迦摩罗人啊!你们的怀疑、你们的迷茫是正当的;因为对于一件可疑的事,是应当生起怀疑的。迦摩罗人啊!你们要注意不可被流言、传说、及耳食之言所左右,也不可依据宗教典籍,也不可单靠论理或推测,也不可单看事物的表象,也不可溺好由揣测而得的臆见,也不可因某事物之似有可能而信以为实,也不可作如此想:“他是我们的导师。”迦摩罗人啊!只有在你自己确知某事是不善、错误、邪恶的时候,你才可以革除他们......而当你自己确知某事是善良的、美好的,那时你再信受奉行。’﹝注七﹞

The Buddha went even further. He told the bhikkus that a disciple should examine even the Tathāgata (Buddha) himself, so that he (the disciple) might be fully convinced of the true value of the teacher whom he followed. [8]

佛所教的尚不只此。他告诉他的比丘们:弟子甚至须审察如来(佛)本身。这样,他才能充分地相信他所追随师尊的真正价值。﹝注八﹞

According to the Buddha's teaching, doubt (vicikkcchā) is one of the five Hindrances (nīvarana)[9] to the clear understanding of Truth and to spiritual progress (or for that matter to any progress). Doubt, however, is not a 'sin', because there are no articles of faith in Buddhism. In fact there is no 'sin' in Buddhism, as sin is understood in some religions. The root of all evil is ignorance (avijjā) and false views (micchā ditthi). It is an undeniable fact that as long as there is doubt, perplexity, wavering, no progress is possible. It is also equally undeniable that there must be doubt as long as one does not understand or see clearly. But in order to progress further it is absolutely necessary to get rid of doubt. To get rid of doubt one has to see clearly.

根据佛的教诲,疑是五盖﹝注九﹞之一,能覆蔽人心,使不得如实见到真理,并能障碍一切进步。疑却不是一种罪恶,因为在佛教理没有盲信这一条。事实上,佛教里根本就没有其他宗教里所谓罪的观念。一切恶法的根本是无明与邪见。不可否认的是:只要有疑、迷惑、意志不坚定,就不可能有进步。但同样不可否认的,在没有确实明了之前,疑是一定存在的。可是想求进步,就绝对必须祛除疑惑;而祛除疑惑,又必须确实明了。

There is no point in saying that one should not doubt or one should believe. Just to say' I believe' does not mean that you understand and see, When a student works on mathematical problem, he comes to a stage beyond which he does not know how to proceed, and where he is in doubt and perplexity. As long as he has this doubt, he cannot proceed. If he wants to proceed, he must resolve this doubt. And there are ways of resolving that doubt. Just to say 'I believe', or, 'I do not doubt' will certainly not solve the problem. To force oneself to believe and to accept a thing without understanding is political, and not spiritual or intellectual.

叫人不怀疑,叫人必须要信,是没有道理的。仅仅说一声‘我相信’,并不能表示你已有了知与见。一个学生做数学题目的时候,到了某一阶段,他不知道该怎么演算下去。这时他就生起疑虑和惶恐,只要此疑不除,他就不能进步。想进一步演算下去,他就必须解除疑惑。解除疑惑的门径很多,仅靠说一声‘我相信’或‘我不怀疑’,并不能解决问题。强迫自己去相信与接受某些不了解的事物,是政治,不是宗教,也不是睿智。

The Buddha was always eager to dispel doubt. Even just a few minutes before his death, he requested his disciples several times to ask him if they had any doubts about his teaching, and not to feel sorry later that they could not clear those doubts. But the disciples were silent. What he said then was touching: 'If it is through respect for the Teacher that you do not ask anything, let even one of you inform his friend' (i.e., let one tell his friend so that the latter may ask the question on the other's behalf). [10]

佛为了祛疑解惑,素极热切。就在他圆寂前几分钟,他还数度要求他的弟子们,如果他们对他的教诫仍有所疑的话,应向他提出问题,而不要到后来再后悔没有把这些疑问搞清楚。可是他的弟子们都没有出声。那时他所说的话极为感人。他说:‘假使你们因为尊敬你们的师尊而不肯提出问题的话,甚至有一个人肯告诉他的朋友也好。’(这意思就是说:他可以将所疑的告诉他的朋友,而由后者代替他向佛陀发问。)﹝注十﹞

Not only the freedom of thought, but also the tolerance allowed by the Buddha is astonishing to the student of the history of religions. Once in Nālandā a prominent and wealthy householder named Upāli, a well-known lay disciple of Nigantha Nātaputta (Jaina Mahāvīra), was expressly sent by Mahāvīra himself to meet the Buddha and defeat him in argument on certain points in the theory of Karma, because the Buddha's views on the subject were different from those of Mahāvīra. [11] Quite contrary to expectations, Upāli, at the end of the discussion, was convinced that the views of the Buddha were right and those of his master were wrong. So he begged the Buddha to accept him as one of his lay disciples (Upāsaka). But the Buddha asked him to reconsider it, and not to be in a hurry, for 'considering carefully is good for well-known men like you'. When Upāli expressed his desire again, the Buddha requested him to continue to respect and support his old religious teachers as he used to. [12]

佛不但准许弟子们自由思考,他的宽大为怀,尤令研究佛教史的人吃惊。有一次,在那烂陀城,佛接见了一位有名而富有的居士,名叫优婆离。他是耆那教主尼干若提子(摩诃毗罗﹝注十一﹞)的在家弟子。摩诃毗罗亲自选派他去迎佛,和佛辩论有关业报理论方面的某些问题,想将佛击败,因为在这些问题上,佛的观点与尼干若提子有所不同。可是出乎意料之外,讨论论的结果,优婆离却相信佛的观点是对的,他老师的看法反而错了。所以,他就求佛收他做佛的在家弟子(优婆塞)。但佛叫他不要急著作决定,要慎重考虑一番。因为‘像你这样有名望的人,审慎考虑是要紧的。’当优婆离再度表示他的愿望的时后,佛就要求他继续恭敬供养他以前的宗教导师们,一如往昔。﹝注十二﹞

In the third century B.C., the great Buddhist Emperor Asoka of India, following this noble example of tolerance and understanding, honoured and supported all other religions in his vast empire. In one of his Edicts carved on rock, the original of which one may read even today, the Emperor declared:

在西元前三世纪顷,印度的佛教大帝阿输迦(阿育王),遵照佛陀宽容谅解的模范,恭敬供养他广袤幅员内所有的宗教。在他雕刻于岩石上的许多诰文中,有一则原文至今尚存,其中大帝宣称:

'One should not honour only one' own religion and condemn the religions of others, but one should honour others' religions for this or that person. So doing, one helps one's own religion to grow and renders service to the religions of others too. In acting otherwise one digs the grave of one's own religion and also does harm to other religions. Whosoever honours his own religion and condemns other religions, does so indeed through devotion to his own religion, thinking “I will glorify my own religion”. But on the contrary, in so doing he injures his own religion more gravely.

‘不可只尊敬自己的宗教,而菲薄他人的宗教。应如理尊重他教,这样做,不但可帮助自己宗教的成长,而且也对别的宗教尽了义务。反过来做;则不但替自己的宗教掘了坟墓,也伤害了别的宗教。凡是尊重自教而非难他教的人,当然是为了忠于自教,以为“我将光大自宗”,但是,相反的,他更严重地伤害了他自己的宗教。

So concord is good: Let all listen, and be willing to listen to the doctrines professed by others'. [13]

因此,和谐才是好的。大家都应该谛听,而且心甘情愿地谛听其他宗教的教义。’﹝注十三﹞

We should add here that this spirit of sympathetic understanding should be applied today not only in the matter of religious doctrine, but elsewhere as well.

在此,我们要加一句话,就是:这种富于同情、了解的精神,在今天不但应当适用于宗教方面,也适用于其他方面。

This spirit of tolerance and understanding has been from the beginning one of the most cherished ideals of Buddhist culture and civilization. That is why there is not a single example of persecution or the shedding of a drop of blood in converting people to Buddhism, or in its propagation during its long history of 2500 years. It spread peacefully all over the continent of Asia, having more than 500 million adherents today. Violence in any form, under any pretext whatsoever, is absolutely against the teaching of the Buddha.

这种宽容与了解的精神,自始就是佛教文化与佛教文明最珍视的理想之一。因此,在两千五百多年漫长的佛教史中,找不到一个佛教迫害他教的例子。佛教也从来不曾因为弘法或劝人信佛而流过一滴血。它和平地传遍了整个亚洲大陆,到今天已有了五亿以上的信众。任何形式的暴力,不论以什么为借口,都是绝对与佛的教诫相违背的。

The question has often been asked: Is Buddhism a religion or a philosophy? It does not matter what you call it. Buddhism remains what it is whatever label you may put on it. The label is immaterial. Even the label 'Buddhism' which we give to the teaching of the Buddha is of little importance. The name one gives it is inessential.

有一个时常被提起的问题:佛教到底是宗教呢?还是哲学?不管你叫它做什么,都无关宏旨。佛教仍然是佛教,不论你给它贴上什么样的标签。标签是不相干的。我们将佛的教诫称为‘佛教’,也没有什么特别的重要性。人们为它所取的名字,是不关紧要的。

What's in a name? That which we call a rose,

名字有什么相干? 我们叫做玫瑰的,

By any other name would smell as sweet.

叫任何别的名字, 仍然一样的芬芳。

In the same way Truth needs no label” it is neither Buddhist, Christian, Hindu nor Moslem. It is not the monopoly of anybody. Sectarian labels are a hindrance to the independent understanding of Truth, and they produce harmful prejudices in men's minds.

同样的,真理不需要标签。它既不是佛教的,也不是基督教的、印度教的、或是回教的。它不是任何人的专利品。宗教的标签,只是独立了解真理的障碍。它们能在人们心中产生有害的偏见。

This is true not only in intellectual and spiritual matters, but also in human relations. When, for instance, we meet a man, we do not look on him as a human being, but we put a label on him, such as English, French, German, American, or Jew, and regard him with all the prejudices associated with that label in our mind. Yet he may be completely free from those attributes which we have put on him.

这不仅再与理性和心灵有关的事情为然。即使在人与人的关系间,亦复如是。举例来说,我们遇到一个人,并不把他看成人类,而先在他身上加上一个标签,好比英国人、法国人、德国人、或是犹太人,然后将我们心中与这些名称有关的一切成见,都加在此人身上。实际上,这人可能不含有丝毫我们所加于他身上的种种属性。

People are so fond of discriminative labels that they even go to the length of putting them on human qualities and emotions common to all. So they talk of different ' brands' of charity, as for example, of Buddhist charity or Christian charity, and look down upon other 'brands' of charity. But charity cannot be sectarian; it is neither Christian, Buddhist, Hindu nor Moslem. The love of a mother for her child is neither Buddhist nor Christian: it is mother love. Human qualities and emotions like love, charity, compassion, tolerance, patience, friendship, desire, hatred, ill-will, ignorance, conceit, etc., need no sectarian labels; they belong to no particular religions.

人类最喜欢有分别性的标签,甚至将各种人类共同具有的品性与情感也都加上了标签。因此,我们常常谈到各种‘商标’的慈善事业:好比佛教慈善事业,或者基督教慈善事业,而藐视其他‘商标’的慈善事业。可是慈善事业实在不能分宗派;它既非基督教的、佛教的、印度教的、也非回教的。一位母亲对子女的爱,既非佛教的,也非基督教的;它只是母爱。人类的品性与情感如爱、慈、悲、恕、忍、义、欲、憎、恶、愚、慢等,都用不著宗教的标签;它们并不专属于任一宗教。

To the seeker after Truth it is immaterial from where an idea comes. The source and development of an idea is a matter for the academic. In fact, in order to understand Truth, it is not necessary even to know whether the teaching comes from the Buddha, or from anyone else. What is essential is seeing the thing, understanding it. There is an important story in the Majjhima-nikāya (sutta no.140) which illustrates this.

对于寻求真理的人来说,某一思想的来源是无足轻重的。研究某种思想的源流及演变是学术界的事。事实上,如果单为了明了真理,甚至不需要知道这教义是否为佛说,或是他人所说。要紧的是了知与澈见真理。在巴利藏《中部经》第一四零经中,有一则很重要的记载,可资佐证。

The Buddha once spent a night in a potter's shed. In the same shed there was a young recluse who had arrived there earlier. [14] They did not know each other. The Buddha observed the recluse and thought to himself: 'Pleasant are the ways of this young man. It would be good if I should ask about him'. So the Buddha asked him 'O bhikkhu, [15] in whose name have you left home? Or who is your master? Or whose doctrine do you like?'

有一次,佛在一个陶工的棚屋里度过一夜。在这棚屋里,先到了一位年轻的出家人。﹝注十四﹞他和佛陀彼此并不相识。佛陀将这出家人端详一遍,就这样想:这年轻人的仪态举止都很可喜,我不妨盘问他一番。于是佛就问他:‘比丘啊!﹝注十五﹞你是在谁的名下出家的?谁是你的导师?你服膺谁的教诫?’

'O friend,' answered the young man, 'there is the recluse Gotama, a Sakyan scion, who left the Sakya-family to become a recluse. There is high repute abroad of him that he is an Arahant, a Full-Enlightened One. In the name of that Blessed One I have become a recluse. He is my Master, and I like his doctrine.'

‘同修啊!’那年轻人回答说:‘有一位名叫乔答摩的释迦种后裔,离开了释迦族做了出家人。他的声名远扬,据说已得了阿罗汉果,是一位觉行圆满的尊者。我是那位世尊名下出家的。他是我的师傅,我服膺他的教诫。’

'Where does that Blessed One, the Arahant, the Fully-Enlightened One live at the present time?'

‘那位世尊、阿罗汉、觉行圆满的尊者,现在住在那里呢?’

'In the countries to the north, friend, there is a city called Sāvatthi. It is there that Blessed One, the Arahant, the Fully-Enlightened One, is now living.'

‘在北方的国土中。同修啊!有一个城市叫做舍卫。那位世尊、阿罗汉、觉行圆满的尊者,现在就住在那里。’

'Have you ever seen him, that Blessed One? Would you recognize him if you saw him?'

‘你见过他吗?那位世尊,如果你见到他,会认识他吗?’

'I have never seen that Blessed One. Nor should I recognize him if I saw him.'

‘我从来没见过那位尊者。假使我见到他,也不会认识他。’

The Buddha realized that it was in his name that this unknown young man had left home and become a recluse. But without divulging his own identity, he said: 'O bhikkhu, I will teach you the doctrine. Listen and pay attention. I will speak.'

佛知到这不相识的青年是在他名下出家的。他不透露自己的身份,说道:‘比丘啊!我来将法传授与你吧。你留神听著!我要讲啦!’

'Very well, friend,' said the young man in assent.

‘好的,同修!’年轻人答应道。

Then the Buddha delivered to this young man a most remarkable discourse explaining Truth (the gist of which is given later). [16]

于是,佛为这年轻人讲了一部极其出色解释真理的经。(这经的要领,以后再行交代。)﹝注十六﹞

It was only at the end of the discourse that this young recluse, whose name was Pukkusāti, realized that the person who spoke to him was the Buddha himself. So he got up, went before the Buddha, bowed down at the feet of the Master, and apologized to him for calling him 'friend' [17] unknowingly. He then begged the Buddha to ordain him and admit him into the Order of the Sangha.

一直到这部经讲完之后,这名叫弗加沙的年轻出家人才恍然大悟,原来那讲话的人正是佛陀。于是他站起来,走到佛陀跟前,匍伏在世尊足下,向世尊谢罪,因他不明就里,竟把世尊叫做同修。﹝注十七﹞然后他请求世尊为他授戒,准他参加僧伽。

The Buddha asked him whether he had the alms-bowl and the robes ready. (A bhikkhu must have three robes and the alms-bowl for begging food). When Pukkusāti replied in the negative, the Buddha said that the Tathāgatas would not ordain a person unless the alms-bowl and the robes were ready. So Pukkusāti went out in search of an alms-bowl and robes, but was unfortunately savaged by a cow and died. [18]

佛问他有没有准备衣和钵。(比丘应备三衣一钵,钵是用来乞食的。)弗加沙回说没有。佛说如来不能为没有衣钵的人授戒。弗加沙闻言就出去张罗衣钵,但不幸被一只母牛角触致死。﹝注十八﹞

Later, when this sad news reached the Buddha, he announced that Pukkusāti was a wise man, who had already seen the Truth, and attained the penultimate stage in the realization of Nirvāna, and that he was born in a realm where he would become an Arahant[19] and finally pass away, never ti return to this world again. [20]

后来这噩耗传到佛处。佛即宣称弗加沙是一位圣者,已经澈见真理,得不还果,在他再生之地,即可得阿罗汉果﹝注十九﹞,死后永不再回到这世界来。﹝注二十﹞

From this story it is quite clear that when Pukkusāti listened to the Buddha and understood his teaching, he did not know who was speaking to him, or whose teaching it was. He saw Truth. If the medicine is good, the disease will be cured. It is not necessary to know who prepared it, or where it came from.

这故事很清楚地说明弗加沙听佛说法,就了解佛所说义,他并不知道说法的是谁,所说的是谁的法却见到了真理。只要药好,就可治病。用不著知道方子是谁配的,药是那里来的。

Almost all religions are built on faith-rather 'blind' faith it would seem. But in Buddhism emphasis is laid on 'seeing', knowing, understanding, and not on faith, or belief, In Buddhist texts there is a word saddhā (Skt. Śraddhā has three aspects: (I) full and firm conviction that a thing is, (2) serene joy at good qualities, and (3) aspiration or wish to achieve an object in view. [21]

几乎所有的宗教都是建立在‘信’——毋宁说是盲信——上的。但是在佛教里,重点却在‘见’、知与了解上,而不在信(相信)上。巴利文佛典里有一个字 saddha 梵文作sraddha),一般都译作‘信’或‘相信’。但是saddha 不是单纯的‘信’,而是由确知而生之坚心。只是在通俗佛教以及在经典中的一般用法方面来说, saddha 确含有若干‘信’的成份。那是只对佛、法、僧的虔敬而言的。

根据西元四世纪顷的大佛教哲学家无著的说法,信有三种形态:(一)完全而坚定地确信某一事物的存在,(二)见功德生宁静的喜悦,(三)欲达成某一目的的深愿。﹝注二十一﹞

However you put it, faith or belief as understood by most religions has little to do with Buddhism. [22]

不论怎样解释,多数宗教所了解的信(相信),都与佛教极少关涉。﹝注二十二﹞

The question of belief arises when there is no seeing- seeing in every sense of the word. The moment you see, the question of belief disappears. If I tell you that I have a gem hidden in the folded palm of my hand, the question of belief arises because you do not see it yourself. But it I unclench my fist and show you the gem, then you see it for yourself, and the question of belief does not arise. So the phrase in ancient, Buddhist texts reads:' Realizing, as one sees a gem (or a myrobalan fruit) in the palm'.

一般‘相信’之所以产生,全在无‘见’;这包括一切见的意义在内。一旦见了,相信的问题即告消失。如果我告诉你:我握紧的掌中有一颗宝石,这就产生了信与不信的问题,因为你看不见。但是如果我张开手掌让你看这宝石,你亲见之后,相信的问题便无从产生了。因此,在古佛典中有这样一句话:‘悟时如睹掌中珍(或作庵摩罗果)。’

A disciple of the Buddha named Musila tells another monk: 'Friend Savittha, without devotion, faith or belief, [23] without liking or inclination, without hearsay or tradition, without considering apparent reasons, without delight in the speculations of opinions, I know and see that the cessation of becoming is Nirvāna.' [24]

佛有一位叫做谟尸罗的弟子。他告诉另外一位比丘说:‘沙卫陀同修啊!不靠礼拜、信(相信)﹝注二十三﹞,没有贪喜偏爱,不听耳食之言及传说,不考虑表面的理由,不耽于揣测的臆见,我确知、明见“生的止息”即是涅槃。’﹝注二十四﹞

And the Buddha says: 'O bhikkus, I say that the destruction of defilement and impurities is (meant) for a person who knows and who sees, and not for a person who does not know and does not see.' [25]

佛又说:‘比丘们啊!我说离垢祛染,是对有知见的人说的,不是对无知无见的人说的啊!’﹝注二十五﹞

It is always a question of knowing and seeing, and not that of believing. The teaching of the Buddha is qualified as ehi-passika, inviting you to 'come and see', but not to come and believe.

佛教的信永远是知见的问题,不是相信的问题。佛的教诫曾被形容为 ehipasika,就是请你自己‘来看’,而不是来相信。

The expressions used everywhere in Buddhist texts referring to persons who realized Truth are: 'The dustless and stainless Eye of Truth (Dhamma- cakkhu) has arisen.' 'He has seen Truth, has attained Truth, has known Truth, has known Truth, has penetrated into Truth, has crossed over doubt, is without wavering.' 'Thus with right wisdom he sees it as it is (yathā bhūtam)'.[26] With reference to his own Enlightenment the Buddha said: 'The eye was born, knowledge was born, wisdom was born, science was born, and light was born.' [27] It is always seeing through knowledge or wisdom (ŭāna-dassana), and not believing through faith.

在佛典里,说到证入真理的人,到处都用‘得净法眼’一词。又如‘他已见道、得道、知道,深入实相,尽祛疑惑,意志坚定,不复动摇。’‘以正智慧如实知见。’﹝注二十六﹞谈到他自己的悟道时,佛说:‘眼睛生出来了,知识生出来了,智慧生出来了,善巧生出来了,光明生出来了。’﹝注二十七﹞佛教里一向是由智慧得正见,而不是由盲信而生信仰。

This was more and more appreciated at a time when Brāhmanic orthodoxy intolerantly insisted on believing and accepting their tradition and authority as the only Truth without question. Once a group of learned and well-known Brahmins went to see the Buddha and had a long discussion with him. One of the group, a Brahmin youth of 16 years of age, named Kāpathika, considered by them all to be an exceptionally brilliant mind, put a question to the Buddha:[28]

在正统婆罗门教毫不容地坚持要相信,并接受他们的传统与权威为不容置疑的唯一真理的时代,佛这种态度日益受人激赏。有一次,一群博学知名的婆罗门教徒去拜访佛,并与他作了长时间的讨论。在这一群人中,有一位十六岁的青年,名叫迦婆逿伽。他的心智是公认为特别聪颖的。他向佛提出了一个问题﹝注二十八﹞:

'Venerable Gotama, there are the ancient holy scriptures of the Brahmins handed down along the line by unbroken oral tradition of texts. With regard to them, Brahmins come to the absolute conclusions: “This alone is Truth, and everything else is false”. Now, what does the Venerable Gotama say about this?'

‘可敬的乔答摩啊!婆罗门教的古圣典是经过往哲口口相传,直至于今今从未中断。关于这个,婆罗罗门教徒有一个绝对的结论:“只有这才是真理,余者皆是假法。”可敬的乔答摩,对这点有什么话说吗?’

The Buddha inquired: 'Among Brahmins is there any one single Brahmin who claims that he personally knows and sees that “This alone is Truth, and everything else is false.”?'

佛问道:‘在婆罗门教徒中,有没有一个人敢说他已亲身确知确见“只有这才是真理,余者皆假”?’

The young man was frank, and said: 'No'.

那年轻人倒很坦白。:他说:‘没有!’

'Then, is there any one single teacher, or a teacher of teachers of Brahmins back to the seventh generation, or even any one of those original authors of those scriptures, who claims that he knows and he sees: “This alone is Truth, and everything else is false”?'

‘那末,有没有一位婆罗门的教师,或是教师的教师,如此上溯至于七代,或是婆罗门经典的原著作人,曾自称他已知已见“只有这才是真理,余者皆是假法”?’

'No.'

‘没有!’

'Then, it is like a line of blind men, each holding on to the preceding one; the first one does not see, the middle one also does not see, the last one also does not see. Thus, it seems to me that the state of the Brahmins is like that of line blind men.'

‘那末,这就像一队盲人,每一个都抓住了前面的人。第一个看不见,中间的看不见,最后也看不见。这样,依我看来,婆罗门教徒的情形正与一队盲人相彷。’

Then the Buddha gave advice of extreme importance to the group of Brahmins: 'It is not proper for a wise man who maintains (lit. protects) truth to come to the conclusions: “This alone is Truth, and everything else is false”.'

然后,佛给了这群婆罗门教徒一些极为重要的忠告。他说:‘护法的智者,不应作如是的结论:“只有这才是真理,余者皆假”。’

Asked by the young Brahmin to explain the idea of maintaining or protecting truth, the Buddha said: 'A man has a faith. If he says “This is my faith”, so far he maintains truth. But by that he cannot proceed to the absolute conclusions: “This alone is Truth, and everything else is false”.' In other words, a man may believe what he likes, and he may say 'I believe this'. So far he respects truth. But because of his belief or faith, he should not say that what he believes is alone the Truth, and everything else is false.

那年轻的婆罗门,就请佛解释应如何护法。佛说:‘如人有信仰,而他说“这是我的信仰”,这样可说是护法了。但这样说过之后,他却不可进一步地得出一个绝对的结论:“只有这才是真理,余者皆假。”换言之,谁都可以相信他所喜爱的,也可以说“我相信这个”。到此为止,他仍是尊重真理的。但是由于他的信仰,他却不能说唯有他所相信的才是真理,而其他一切都是假的。’

The Buddha says: 'To be attached to one thing (to a certain view) and to look down upon other things (views) as inferior – this the wise men call a fetter.' [29]

佛说:‘凡执著某一事物(或见解)而藐视其他事物(见解)为卑劣,智者叫这个是桎梏(缠缚)。’﹝注二十九﹞

Once the Buddha explained[30] the doctrine of cause and effect to his disciples, and they said that they saw it and understood it clearly. Then the Buddha said:

有一次,佛为弟子说因果律。﹝注三十﹞他的弟子们说他们已看见了,也明白了解了。于是佛说:

'O bhikkhus, even this view, which is so pure and so clear, if you cling to it, if you fondle it, if you treasure it, if you are attached to it, then you do not understand that the teacher is similar to a raft, which is for crossing over, and not for getting hold of.' [31]

‘比丘们啊!甚至此一见地,如此清净澄澈,但如你贪取它,把玩它,珍藏它,执著它,那你就是还没有了解凡所教诫只如一条木筏,是用来济渡河川的,而不是供执取的。’﹝注三十一﹞

Elsewhere the Buddha explains this famous simile in which his teaching is compared to a raft for crossing over, and not for getting hold of and carrying on one's back:

在另一经里,佛曾解释这则有名的譬喻。就是说:‘他的法,好比是一条用以渡河的木筏,而不是为人执取、负在背上用的。’他说:

'O bhikkhus, a man is on a journey. He comes to a vast stretch of water. On this side the shore is dangerous, but on the other it is safe without danger. No boat goes to the other shore which is safe and without danger, nor is there any bridge for crossing over. He says to himself: “This sea of water is vast, and the shore on this side is full of danger; but on the other shore it is safe and without danger. No boat goes to the other side, nor is there a bridge for crossing over. It would be good therefore if I would gather grass, wood, branches and leaves to make a raft, and with the help of the raft cross over safely to the other side, exerting myself with my hands and feet”. Then that man, O bhikkhus, gather grass, wood, branches and leaves and makes a raft, and with the help of that raft crosses over safely to the other side, exerting himself with his hands and feet. Having crossed over and got to the other side, he thinks: “This raft was of great help to me. With its aid I have crossed safely over to this side, exerting myself with my hands and feet. It would be good if I carry this raft on my head or on my back wherever I go”.

‘比丘啊!有人在旅行时遇到一片大水。在这边岸上充满了危险,而水的对岸则安全无险。可是却没有船可渡此人登上那安全的彼岸,也无桥梁跨越水面。此人即自语道:“此海甚大,而此岸危机重重,彼岸则安全无险。无船可渡,亦无桥梁。我不免采集草木枝叶,做一只木筏,藉此筏之助,当得安登彼岸,只须胼手胝足自己努力即可。”于是,那人即采集了草木枝叶,做了一只木筏。由于木筏之助,他只赖自己手足之力,安然渡达彼岸。他就这样想:“此筏对我大有助益。由于它的帮助,我得只靠自己手足之力,安然渡达此岸。我不妨将此筏顶在头上,或负于背上,随我所之。”’

'What do you think, O bhikkhus, if he acted in this way would that man be acting properly with regard to the raft? “No, Sir”. In which way then would he be acting properly with regard to the raft? Having crossed and gone over to the other side, suppose that man should think: “This raft was a great help to me. With its aid I have crossed safely over to this side, exerting myself with my hands and feet. It would be good if I beached this raft on the shore, or moored it and left it afloat, and then went on my way wherever it may be”. Acting in this way would that man act properly with regard to that raft.

‘比丘啊!你们意下如何呢?此人对筏如此处置,是否适当?’‘不,世尊。’‘那末,要怎样处置这筏,才算适当呢?既以渡达彼岸了,假使此人这样想:“这筏对我大有助益。由于它的帮助,我得只靠自己手足之力,安然抵达此岸。我不妨将筏拖到沙滩上来,或停泊某处,由它浮著,然后继续我的旅程,不问何之。”如果这样做,此人的处置此筏,就很适当了。’

'In the same manner, O bhikkhus, I have taught a doctrine similar to a raft – it is for crossing over, and not for carrying (lit. getting hold of). You, O bhikkhus, who understand that the teaching similar to a raft, should give up even good things (dhamma); how much more then should you give up evil things (adhamma).' [32]

‘同样的,比丘们啊!我所说的法也好像木筏一样,是用来济渡的,不是为了负荷(巴利文原字义作执取)的。比丘们啊!你们懂得我的教诫犹如木筏,就当明白好的东西(法)尚应舍弃,何况不好的东西(非法)呢?’﹝注三十二﹞

From this parable it is quite clear that the Buddha's teaching is meant to carry man to safety, peace, happiness, tranquillity, the attainment of Nirvāna. The whole doctrine taught by the Buddha leads to this end. He did not say things just to satisfy intellectual curiosity. He was a practical teacher and taught only those things which would bring peace and happiness to man.

从这则譬喻,可以很清楚的了知,佛的教诫是用以度人,使他得到安全、和平、快乐、宁静的涅槃的。佛的整个教义都以此为目的。他的说法,从来不是仅为了满足求知的好奇。他是一位现实的导师。他只教导能为人类带来和平与快乐的学问。

The Buddha was once staying in a Simsapā forest in Kosambi (near Allahabad). He took a few leaves into his hand, and asked his disciples: 'What do you think, O bhikkhus? Which is more? These few leaves in my hand or the leaves in the forest over here?

有一次,佛在憍赏弥(今印度阿拉哈巴特附近)一座尸舍婆林中住锡。他取了几张叶子放在手里,问他的弟子们道:‘比丘们啊!你们意下如何?我手中的叶子多呢?还是此间树林的叶子多?’

'Sir, very few are the leaves in the hand of the Blessed One , but indeed the leaves in the Simsapā forest over here are very much more abundant.'

‘世尊!世尊手中只有很少几片叶子,但此间尸舍婆林中的叶子却确实要多得多了。’

'Even so, bhikkhus, of what I have known I have told you only a little, what I have not told you is very much more. And why have I not told you (those things)? Because that is not useful… not leading to Nirvāna. That is why I have not told you those things.' [33]

‘同样的,我所知法,已经告诉你们的只是一点点。我所未说的法还多的呢。而我为什么不为你们说(那些法)呢?因为它们没有用处......不能导人至涅槃。这就是我没说那些法的原因。’﹝注三十三﹞

It is futile, as some scholars vainly try to do, for us to speculate on what the Buddha knew but did not tell us.

有些学者正在揣测佛所知而未说的是些什么法。这是徒劳无功的。

The Buddha was not interested in discussing unnecessary metaphysical questions which are purely speculative and which create imaginary problems. He considered them as a 'wilderness of opinions.' It seems that there were some among his own disciples who did not appreciate this attribute of his. For, we have the example of one of them, Mālunkyaputta by name, who put to the Buddha ten well-known classical questions on metaphysical problems and demanded answers. [34]

佛对于讨论不必要的形上学方面的问题不感兴趣。这些都是纯粹的臆想,只能制造莫须有的问题。他把它们形容为‘戏论的原野’。在他的弟子中,似乎有几个人不能领会佛的这种态度。因为有一个例子:一个叫做鬘童子的弟子,就曾以十条有名的形上学方面的问题问佛,并要求佛作一个答覆。﹝注三十四﹞

One day Mālunkyaputta got up from his afternoon meditation, went to the Buddha, saluted him, sat on one side and said:

有一天,鬘童子午后静坐时,忽然起来去到佛所,行过礼后在一旁坐下,就说:

'Sir, when I was all alone meditating, this thought occurred to me: There are these problems unexplained, put aside and rejected by the Blessed One, Namely, (I) is the universe eternal or (2) is it not eternal, (3) is the universe finite or (4) is it infinite, (5) is soul the same as body or (6) is soul one thing and body another thing, (7) does the Tathāgata exist after death, or (8) does he not exist after death, or (9) does he both (at the same time) exist and not exist after death, or (10) does he both (at the same time) not exist and not not-exist. These problems the Blessed One does not explain to me. This (attitude) does not please me, I do not appreciate it. I will go to the Blessed One and ask him about this matter. If the Blessed One explains them to me, then I will continue to follow the holy life under him. If he does not explain them, I will leave the Order and go away. If the Blessed One knows that the universe is eternal, let him explain it to me so. If the Blessed One knows that the universe is not eternal, let him say so. If the Blessed One does not know whether the universe is eternal or not, etc., then for a person who does not know, it is straight forward to say “I do not know. I do not see”.'

‘世尊!我正独自静坐,忽然起了一个念头:有些问题世尊总不解释,或将之搁置一边,或予以摒斥。这些问题是:(一)宇宙是永恒的,还是(二)不永恒的?(三)是有限的,还是(四)无限的?(五)身与心是同一物,还是(六)身是一物,心又是一物?(七)如来死后尚继续存在,还是(八)不再继续存在,还是(九)既存在亦(同时)不存在?还是(十)既不存在亦(同时)不不存在?这些问题,世尊从未为我解释。这(态度)我不喜欢,也不能领会。我要到世尊那里去问个明白。如果世尊为我解释,我就继续在他座下修习梵行。如果他不为我解释,我就要离开僧团他往。如果世尊知道宇宙是永恒的,就请照这样给我解释。如果世尊知道宇宙是不是永恒的,也请明白说。如果世尊不知道到底宇宙是永恒不永恒等等,那末,不知道这些事情的人,应当直说“我不知道,我不明白。”’

The Buddha's reply to Mālunkyaputta should do good to many millions in the world today who are wasting valuable time on such metaphysical questions and unnecessarily disturbing their peace of mind:

佛给鬘童子的回答,对于今日数以百万计,将宝贵的时间浪费在形上问题上,而毫无必要地自行扰乱其心境的宁静的人,当大有裨益。

'Did I ever tell you, Mālunkyaputta, “Come, Mālunkyaputta, lead the holy life under me. I will explain these questions to you?”

‘鬘童子,我历来有没有对你说过:“来!鬘童子,到我座下来学习梵行,我为你解答这些问题。”?’

'No, Sir.'

‘从来没有,世尊。’

'Then, Mālunkyaputta, even you, did you tell me: “Sir, I will lead the holy life under the Blessed One, and the Blessed One will explain these questions to me”?'

‘那末,鬘童子,就说你自己,你曾否告诉我:“世尊,我在世尊座下修习梵行,世尊要为我解答这些问题。”?’

'No, Sir.'

‘也没有,世尊。’

'Even now, Mālunkyaputta, I do not tell you: “Come and lead the holy life under me, I will explain these questions to you”. And you do not tell me either: “Sir, I will lead the holy life under the Blessed One, and he will explain these questions to me”. Under these circumstances, you foolish one, who refuses whom?[35]

‘就拿现在来说,鬘童子,我也没有告诉你“来我座下修习梵行,我为你解释这些问题”而你也没告诉我“世尊,我在世尊座下修习梵行,世尊要为我解答这些问题”。既然是这样,你这愚蠢的人呀!是谁摒弃了谁呢?﹝注三十五﹞

Mālunkyaputta, if anyone says: “I will not lead the holy life under the Blessed One until he explains these questions,” he may die with these questions unanswered by the Tathāgata. Suppose Mālunkyaputta, a man is wounded by a poisoned arrow, and his friends and relatives bring him to a surgeon. Suppose the man should then say: “I will not let this arrow be taken out until I know who shot me; whether he is a Ksattiya (of the warrior caste) or a Brāhmana (of the priestly caste) or a Vaiśya (of the trading and agricultural caste) or a Sūdra (of the low caste); what his name and family may be; whether he is tall, short, or of medium stature; whether his complexion is black, brown, or golden: from which village, town or city he comes. I will not let this arrow be taken out until I know the kind of bow with which I was shot; the kind of bowstring used; the type of arrow; what sort of feather was used on the arrow and with what kind of material the point of the arrow was made.” Mālunkyaputta, that man would die without knowing any of these things. Even so, Mālunkyaputta, if anyone says: “I will not follow the holy life under the Blessed One until he answers these questions such as whether the universe is eternal or not, etc.,” he would die with these questions unanswered by the Tathāgata.'

‘鬘童子,如果有人说“我不要在世尊座下修习梵行,除非他为我解释这些问题”,此人还没有得到如来的答案时就要死掉了。鬘童子,假如有一个人被毒箭所伤,他的亲友带他去看外科医生。假使当时那人说:我不愿意把这箭拔出来,要到我知道是谁射我的;他是刹帝利种(武士)、婆罗门种(宗教师)、吠舍种(农商),还是首陀种(贱民);他的姓名与氏族;他是高、是矮,还是中等身材;他的肤色是黑、是棕,还是金黄色;他来自那一城市乡镇。我不愿取出此箭,除非我知到我是被什么弓所射中,弓弦是什么样的;那一型的箭;箭羽是那一种羽毛的;箭簇又是什么材料所制......。鬘童子,这人必当死亡,而不得闻知这些答案。鬘童子,如果有人说“我不要在世尊座下修习梵行,除非他回答我宇宙是否永恒等问题”,此人还未得知如来的答案,就已告死亡了。’

Then the Buddha explains to Mālunkyaputta that the holy life does not depend on these views. Whatever opinion one may have about these problems, there is birth, old age, decay, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, distress, “the Cessation of which (i.e. Nirvāna) I declare in this very life.”

接著,佛即为鬘童子解释,梵行是与这种见解无关的。不论一个人对这个问题的见解如何,世间实有生、老、坏、死、忧、戚、哀、痛、苦恼。‘而在此生中,我所说法可灭如是等等苦恼,是为涅槃。’

'Therefore, Mālunkyaputta, bear in mind what I have explained as explained and what I have not explained as unexplained. What are the things that I have not explained? Whether the universe is eternal or not etc., (those 10 opinions) I have not explained. Why, Mālunkyaputta, have I not explained them? Because it is not useful, it is not fundamentally connected with the spiritual holy life, is not conducive to aversion, detachment, cessation, tranquility, deep penetration, full realization, Nirvāna. That is why I have not told you about them.

‘因此,鬘童子,记住:我所解释的,已解释了。我所未解释的,即不再解释。我所未解释的是什么呢?宇宙是永恒?是不永恒?等十问是我所不回答的。鬘童子,为什么我不解答这些问题呢?因为它们没有用处。它们与修练身心的梵行根本无关。它们不能令人厌离、去执、入灭,得到宁静、深观、圆觉、涅槃。因此,我没有为你们解答这些问题。’

'Then, what, Mālunkyaputta, have I explained? I have explained dukkha, the arising of dukkha, the cessation of dukkha, and the way leading to the cessation of dukkha.[36] Why, Mālunkyaputta, have I explained them? Because it is useful, is fundamentally connected with the spiritual holy life, is conductive to aversion, detachment, cessation, tranquility, deep penetration, full realization, Nirvāna. Therefore I have explained them.' [37]

‘那末,我所解释的,又是些什么呢?我说明了苦、苦的生起、苦的止息、和灭苦之道。﹝注三十六﹞鬘童子,为什么我要解释这些呢?因为它们有用。它们与修练身心的梵行有根本上的关连,可令人厌离、去执、入灭、得宁静、深观、圆觉、涅槃。因此我解释这些法。’﹝注三十七﹞

Let us now examine the Four Noble Truths which the Buddha told Mālunkyaputta he had explained.

现在,让我们来研究佛说已为鬘童子解释过的四圣谛。

[1] Dhp. XII 4.

[2] D II (Colombo, 1929), p. 62 (Mahāparinibbāna-sutta).

[3] Tathāgata lit. means 'One who has become the to Truth' i.e., “One who has discovered Truth'. This is the term usually used by the Buddha referring to himself and to the Buddhas in general.

[4] Dhp.XX

[5] Sangha lit means 'Community'. But in Buddhism this term denotes 'The community if Buddhist monks' which is the Order of Monks. Buddha, Dhamma (Teaching) and Sangha (Order) are known as Tisarama 'Three Refuges' or Tiratana (Sanskrit Triratma) 'Triple-Gem'.

[6] D II (Colombo, 1929), p. 62.

[7] A (Colombo, 1929), p. 115.

[8] Vīmamsaka-sutta, no.47 of M

[9] The Five Hindrances are : (ı) Sensuous Lust, (2) III-will, (3) Physical and mental torpor and languor, (4) Restlessness and Worry, (5) Doubt

[10] D II (Colombo, 1929), p. 95; A (Colombo, 1929), p. 239.

[11] Mahāvīra, founder of Jainism, was a contemporary of the Buddha, and was probably a few years older than the Buddha.

[12] Upāli-sutta, no.56 of M.

[13] Rock Edict, XII.

[14] In India potter' sheds are spacious, and quite. References are made in the Pali texts to ascetics and recluses, as well as to the Buddha himself, spending a night in a potter's shed during their wanderings.

[15] It is interesting to note here that the Buddha addresses this recluse as Bhikkhu, which term is used for Buddhist monks. In the sequel it will be seen that he was not a bhikkhu, not a member of the Order of the Sanga, for he asked the Buddha to admit him into the Order, Perhaps in the days of the Buddha the term 'bhikkhu' was used at times even for other ascetics indiscriminately, or the Buddha was not very strict in the use of the term. Bhikkhu means' mendicant' one who begs food' and perhaps it was used here in its literal and original sense. But today the term 'bhikkhu' is used only of Buddhist monks, especially in Theravāda countries like Ceylon, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, and in Chittagong.

[16] In the chapter on the third Noble Truth, see p.38.

[17] The term used us Āvuso which mean friend. It is a respectful term of address among equals. But disciples never used this term addressing the Buddha. Instead they use the term Bhante which approximately means 'Sir' or 'Lord'. At the time of the Buddha, the members of his Order of Monks (Sangha) addressed one another as Āvuso 'Friend'. But before his death the Buddha instructed younger monks to address their elders as Bhante 'Sir' or Āyasmā 'Venerable'. But elders should address the younger members by name, or as Āvuso 'Friend'. (D II Colombo, 1929, p. 95). This practice is continued up to the present day in the Sangha.

[18] It is well-known that cows in India roam about the streets. From this reference it seems that the tradition is very cold. But generally these cows are docile and not savage or dangerous.

[19] An Arahant is a person who has liberated himself from all sefilements and impurities such as desire, hatred, ill-will, ignorance, pride, conceit, etc. He has attained the fourth or the highest and ultimate stage in the realization of Nirvāna, and is full of wisdom compassion and such pure and noble qualities. Pukkusāti had attained at the moment only at third stage which is technically called Anāgāmi 'Never-Returner'. The second stage is called Sakadāgāmi 'Once-Returner' and the first stage is called Sotāpanna 'Stream-Entrant'

[20] Karl Gjellerup's The Pilgrim Kamanita seems to have been inspired by this story of Pukkusāti.

[21] Abhisamuc, p.6

[22] The role of the Miracle in Early Pali Literature by Edith Ludowyk- Gyomroi takes up this subject. Unfortunately this Ph.D. thesis is not yet published. On the same subject see an article by the same author in the Unversity of Ceylon Review, Vol.I, No. I (April, 1943), p. 74 ff

[23] Here the word saddhā is used in its ordinary popular sense of 'devotion, faith, belief'.

[24] S II (PTS), P. 117

[25] Ibid. III, p.152.

[26] E.g. S V, (PTS), p.423; III, p.103; M III (PTS), p. 19.

[27] S V (PTS), p. 422

[28] Canki-sutta, no.95 of M.

[29] Sn (PTS), p. 151 (v.798)

[30] In the Mahātanhāsankhaya-suttu, no. 38 of M.

[31] M I (PTS), p. 260

[32] M I (PTS), pp.134-135. Dhamma here, according to the Commentary, means high spiritual attainments as well as pure views and ideas. Attachment even to these, however high and pure they may be, should be given up; how much more then should it be with regard to evil and bad things. MA II (PTS), p. 109

[33] S V (PTS),p. 437

[34] Cūla-Mālunkya-sutta, no.63 of M.

[35] i.e. both are free and neither is under obligation to the other.

[36] These Four Nobble Truths are explained in the next four chapters.

[37] It seems that this advice of the Budda had the desired effect on Mālunkyaputta, because elsewhere he is reported to have approached the Buddha again for instruction, following which he came an Arahant. A (Colomo, 1929), pp. 345-346; S IV (PTS), p. 72 ff.

注释:

一:见一九二六年哥仑坡版巴利文《法句经》第十二章第四节。

二:见一九二九年哥仑坡版巴利文《长部经》第二集第六十二页。

三:巴利文 Tathagata之字义,是‘来到真理之人’,亦即‘发现真理之人’。佛自称或称他佛时,通常用此名词。

四:见巴利文《法句经》第二十章第四节。

五:巴利文 Sangha 之字义是社团,但在佛教中专只和合僧团而言,亦即僧字的本义。佛法僧总称三皈依或三宝。

六:见一九二九年哥仑坡版巴利文《长部经》第二集第六十二页。

七:见一九二九年哥仑坡版巴利文《增支部经》第一一五页。

八:见巴利文《中部经》第四十七经 Vimamsaka Sutta(译者注:约相当于汉译《中阿含经》第一八六求解经)。

九:五盖为(一)贪欲,(二)嗔恚,(三)睡眠,(四)掉举,(五)疑。

十:见一九二九年哥仑坡版巴利文《长部经》第二集第九十五页及同版《增支部经》第二三九页。

十一:摩诃毗罗是耆那教创始人,与佛陀同时,可能较佛年龄稍大些。

十二:见巴利文《中部经》第五十六优婆离经。

十三:见阿育王石诰第十二篇。

十四:印度陶工的棚屋大都宽敞而清静。巴利文佛典中,常有佛及苦行头陀等出家人游方时,在陶工棚屋中度夜之记载。

十五:这里值得注意的是:佛叫这出家人做比丘——佛教僧侣。由下文可知,其实并不是佛教僧团的一员,因他要求佛准许他参加僧团。也许在佛世,比丘一词也可用于他教的苦行头陀,再不然就是佛对这名词的使用并不严格。比丘的意思是乞者、乞食之人。也许,佛在此用比丘一词,乃是指它的原始字义。可是今日比丘一词已仅限用于佛教僧众,尤以上座部国家如斯里兰卡、缅甸、泰国、柬埔寨、及七打更等地为然。

十六:请参阅第三圣谛章。

十七:此字巴利原文为 Avuso,意即朋友,在平辈中这也是一项尊称。但是弟子们从不用此称呼佛,而用 Bhante 一词,意思略近于长者,师尊。佛世僧团的僧众都互称 Avuso。但佛灭前,曾训令年幼的僧人称呼年长的为 Bhante (师尊)或 Ayasma(大德),而年长的僧人则应称年轻的为 Avuso(见一九二九年哥仑坡版巴利文《长部经》第二集第九十五页)。此项称谓至今仍(在小乘国家)沿用不衰。

十八:印度牛群可在大街上逍遥漫步,是众所皆知之事。从本文看来,这项传统盖由来已久。但一般说,来这些牛都是驯牛,而非危险的野牛。

十九:阿罗汉是已从各种污染不净法如贪欲、嗔恚、不善欲、无明、贡高、我慢等得到解脱之人。他已得四果,亲证涅槃,充满了智慧、慈悲以及其他清净高尚的品性。弗加沙在当时已得到三果,名为阿那含(不还)。二果叫斯陀含(一来),初果叫须陀洹(预流)。

二十:杰勒鲁普( Karl Gjellerup )氏所著之‘朝圣者卡玛尼塔’一书,似系受弗加沙故事的影响而作。

二十一:见一九五零年山提尼克坦版无著之阿毗达摩集论第六页, 。

二十二:几容洛易氏( Edith Ludowyk-Gyomroi)曾著有‘奇迹在早期巴利文学中所扮的角色’一文,对此论题作过一番探讨,惜此论文尚未出版。同著者在锡兰大学评论杂志第一卷第一期(一九四三年四月)第七十四页以次,亦有一文就同一论题予以发挥。可参阅。

二十三:此处巴利文原字为 Saddha ,但其意义则为通俗的礼拜、信仰、相信等义。

二十四:见巴利文学会版《杂部经》第二集第一一七页。

二十五:见同书第三集第一五二页。

二十六:见巴利文学会版《杂部经》第五集第四二三页;第三集一零三页;及同版《中部经》第三集第十九页。

二十七:见同书第五集第四二二页。

二十八:见巴利文《中部经》第九十五经 Canki Sutta。

二十九:见巴利文学会版《小部经》经集第一五一页。( V.798 )

三十:见巴利文《中部经》第三十八经( Mahatanhasankhya Sutta )。(译者注:约相当于汉译《中阿含经》第二零一嗏帝经。)

三十一:见同书第一集第二六零页(巴利文学会版)。

三十二:见巴利文《中部经》第一集第一三四页至一三五页。法字在此之意义,根据巴利文学会版《中部经》觉音疏第二集第一九零页之解释,乃指精神方面之高度成就,亦指纯净之见解及意念。不论此等成就是何等高尚纯净,如有执著,即须放弃。一切恶法之不应执著,更当如何?

三十三:见巴利文学会版《杂部经》第五集第四三七页。

三十四:见巴利《中部经》第六十三 Cula Malunkya Sutta(译者注:约相当于汉译《中阿含经》第二二一箭喻经)。

三十五:意即双方都是自由的。任何一方对于对方均无任何义务。

三十六:关于四谛的详细解释,请看以后四章。

三十七:佛这番训诫,似乎对鬘童子产生了预期作用。因为在其他经中曾有他再度向佛求法,接著成为阿罗汉的记载。见一九二九年哥仑坡版巴利文《增支部经》第三四五至三四六页。


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