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佛陀的启示 第八章 佛的教诫与今日世界 Chapter VIII. What the Buddha Taught and the World Today
 
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背景色

What Buddha Taught(佛陀的启示)

Chapter VIII. What the Buddha Taught and the World Today

第八章  佛的教诫与今日世界

There are some who believe that Buddhism is so lofty and sublime a system that it cannot be practised by ordinary man and woman in this workaday world of ours, and that one has to retire from it to a monastery, or to some quiet place, if one desires to be a true Buddhist.

有些人相信,佛学体系极其崇高卓绝,非一般生活在碌碌尘世里的男女所能实践;假使他想做一个真正的佛教徒的话,必须要离世弃俗,住到寺院里或是其他僻静的处所去。

This is a sad misconception, due evidently to a lack of understanding of the teaching of the Buddha. People run to such hasty and wrong conclusions as a result of their hearing, or reading casually, something about Buddhism written by someone, who, as he has not understood the subject in all its aspects, gives only a partial and lopsided view of it. The Buddha’s teaching is meant not only for monks in monasteries, but also for ordinary men and women living at home with their families. The Noble Eightfold Path, which is the Buddhist way of life, is meant of all, without distinction of any kind.

这是一个可悲的错误观念,显然是对佛的教诫缺乏了解所致。达到这种轻率而错误结论的人,都因为只是偶然听到或读到某些佛教的读物,而这些读物的著者本身对佛教的面面观并没有充分了解,因此他所发表的见地也是片面而偏差的。佛的教诫,不仅是为了寺院中的僧众而设,也是为了住在家庭中的普通男女。代表佛教生活方式的八正道,是为了一切的人而设,没有任何分野。

The vast majority of people in the world cannot turn monk, or retire into caves or forests. However, noble and pure Buddhism may be, it would be useless to the masses of mankind if they could not follow it in their daily life in the world of today. But if you understand the spirit of Buddhism correctly (and not only its letter), you can surely follow and practice it while living the life of an ordinary man.

这世间绝大多数的人,不能出家做和尚,或住到山林洞窟中去。不论佛教是多么纯净而高尚,如果广大的群众不能在今日世界的日常生活里受持奉行它,它就将一无用处。可是,如果你能正确的了解佛教的精神(而不囿于它的文字),你自能一面过著普通人的生活,一面遵行其教诫。

There may be some who find it easier and more convenient to accept Buddhism, if they do live in a remote place, cut off from the society of others. Others may find that that kind if retirement dulls and depresses their whole being both physically and mentally, and that it may not therefore be conducive to the development of their spiritual and intellectual life.

也许有若干人会觉得住在边远之处与世隔绝,比较易于接受佛法。但也有些人也许会觉得这种离世的生活,会使得他们整个身心都变得沈郁滞钝,不利于发展他们的精神与理智的生活。

True renunciation does not mean running away physically from the world. Sāriputta, the chief disciple of the Buddha, said that one man might live in a forest devoting himself to ascetic practices, but might be full of impure thoughts and ’defilements’; another might live in a village or a town, practising no ascetic discipline, but his mind might be pure, and free from ’defilements’. Of these two, said Sāriputta, the one who lives a pure life in the village or town is definitely far superior to, and greater than, the one who lives in the forest. [1]

真正的出离,并不就是将此身离开尘世。佛的大弟子舍利弗就说过:一个人可以住在林间修苦行,心中仍然充满了染污不净的思想。另一个人住在乡镇里,也不修苦行,可是他心境澄朗,了无微瑕。两者之中,舍利弗说,在乡镇中过清净生活的人,远胜于住在林间的人,也要比后者为伟大。[注一]

The common belief that to follow the Buddha’s teaching one has to retire from life is a misconception. It is really an unconscious defence against practising it. There are numerous references in Buddhist literature to men and women living ordinary, normal family lives who successfully practiced what the Buddha taught, and realized Nirvāna. Vacchagotta the Wanderer, (whom we met earlier in the chapter on Anatta), once asked the Buddha straight-forwardly whether there were laymen and woman leading the family life, who followed his teaching successfully and attained to high spiritual states. The Buddha categorically stated that there were not one or two, not a hundred or two hundred or five hundred, but many more laymen and women leading the family life who followed his teaching successfully and attained to high spiritual states. [2]

一般相信遵奉佛教必须离世,是一项错误的观念。这实际上是为不愿实行佛教而作的一项下意识的辩护。在佛教典籍中,有无数的事例,证明过著普通正常家庭生活的人,都能够很成功地实行佛的教诫,证入涅槃。游方者婆嗟种(在无我章里已经介绍过的)有一次直截了当地问佛,过著家庭生活的男女居士,有没有实行佛教而成功地达到很高的精神境界?佛毫不含糊地说,像这种居家的男女成功地遵行佛教而达到很高的精神境界,不止是一个两个,一百个两百个,甚至五百个,而是比五百个还要多出多多。[注二]

It may be agreeable for certain people to live a retired life in a quiet place away from noise and disturbance. But it is certainly more praiseworthy and courageous to practice Buddhism living among your fellow beings, helping them and being of service to them. It may perhaps be useful in some cases for a man to live in retirement for a time in order to improve his mind and character, as preliminary moral, spiritual and intellectual training, to be strong enough to come out later and help others. But if a man lives all his life in solitude, thinking only of his own happiness and ’salvation’, without caring for his fellows, this surely is not in keeping with the Buddha’s teaching which is based on love, compassion, and service to others.

对于某些人,远离尘嚣到一处清净的地方,去过绝世的生活也许合适。可是能与众人共处,实行佛教,为众服务,施以济度,自然更是勇敢而值得赞美。但在某些情形下,也许隐居一时,先将心胸性格陶冶一番,作一番道德、精神与理智方面的初步磨炼,到力量充实之后再出山度人,也未尝不好。可是一个人如果终生独居,只顾到自己的快乐与解脱,不关心余人的疾苦,这就和佛的教诫决不相符了。因为佛教是建立于友爱、慈悲、与为人服务的基础上。
 
One might now ask: If a man can follow Buddhism while living the life of an ordinary layman, why was the Sangha, the Order of monks, established by the Buddha? The Order provides opportunity for those who are willing to devote their lives not only to their own spiritual and intellectual development, but also to the service of others. An ordinary layman with a family cannot be expected to devote his whole life to the service of others, whereas a monk, who has no family responsibilities or any other worldly ties, is in position to devote his whole life ’for the good of the many, for the happiness of the many’ according to the Buddha’s advice. That is how in the course of history, the Buddhist monastery became not only a spiritual centre, but also a centre of learning and culture.

有人也许要问:如果常人可以过在家的生活,而仍能修习佛法,为什么佛要创立和合僧团呢?殊不知僧伽是专为了某些志愿献身的人而设的。这些人不但要发展自己的精神及心智,而且立志要为人类服务。一个有家有室的居士,不能期望他将一生整个地奉献出来为人群服务。和尚因为没有家室之累,也没有其它俗务的羁绊,可以根据佛诫将全部身心贡献于“增进多数人的福祉,增进多数人的快乐”。在历史过程中,佛教寺院不仅成为宗教中心,也成为学术文化的中心,其起因就是这样的。

The Sigāla-sutta (No. 31 of the Digha-nikāya) shows with what great respect the layman’s life, his family and social relations are regards by the Buddha.

佛是何等重视居士的生活以及他家庭与社会关系,从《善生经》(巴利文《长部经》第卅一经)中可以看得出来。

A young man named Sigāla used to worship the six cardinal points of the heavens-east, south, west, north, nadir, and zenith- in obeying and observing the last advice given him by his dying father. The Buddha told the young man that in the ’noble discipline’ (ariyassa vinaye) of his teaching the six directions were different. According to his ’noble discipline’ the six directions were: east: parents; south: teachers; west: wife and children; north: friends, relatives and neighbours; nadir: servants, workers and employees; zenith: religious men.

一个名叫善生的男子,一向都遵守他父亲临终时的遗命,礼拜虚空的六方——东、西、南、北、上、下。佛告诉他说,在佛教圣律中的六方,与他的不同。根据佛的圣律,那六方是:东方——父母,南方——师长,西方——妻儿,北方——亲友邻居,下方——奴隶佣工,上方——宗教信徒。

’One should worship these six directions’ said the Buddha. Here the word ’worship’ (namasseyya) is very significant, for one worships something sacred, something worthy of honour and respect. These six family and social groups mentioned above are treated in Buddhism as sacred, worthy or respect and worship. But how is one to ’worship’ them? The Buddha says that one could ’worship’ them only by performing one’s duties towards them. These duties are explained in his discourse to Sigāla.

‘应当礼拜这六方,’佛说。这里,‘礼拜’一词意义重大。因为,人所礼拜的,一定是神圣的、值得尊重敬仰的东西。上述六类家庭和社会份子,在佛教中就是被视为神圣的、值得尊崇礼拜的了。可是怎样礼拜法呢?佛说,只有对他们敦伦尽分,才算是礼拜。这些职分在《佛说善生经》中都有解释。

First: Parents are sacred to their children. The Buddha says: ’Parents are called Brahma’ (Brahmāti mātāpitaro). The term Brahma denotes the highest and most sacred conception in Indian thought, and in it the Buddha includes parents. So in good Buddhist families at the present time children literally ’worship’ their parents every day, morning and evening. They have to perform certain duties towards their parents according to the ’noble discipline’: they should look after their parents in their old age; should do whatever they have to do on their behalf; should maintain the honour of the family and continue the family tradition; should protect the wealth earned by their parents; and perform their funeral rites after their death. Parents, in their turn, have certain responsibilities towards their children: they should keep their children away from evil courses; should engage them in good and profitable activities; should give them a good education; should marry them into good families; and should hand over the property to them in due course.

第一:父母是神圣的。佛说:‘父母就叫做梵摩。’‘梵摩’这一名词在印度人的心目中,代表的是最高、最神圣的观念,而佛却将双亲也包括在这里面。因此,在现今良好的佛教家庭中,儿童们对于家长每天朝夕都要各礼拜乙次。他们必须根据圣律对双亲尽某些职分,诸如:在双亲年老时负起扶养之责;代表双亲尽他们应尽的本分;保持家庭传统于不坠而且光大门楣;守护双亲辛苦积聚的财富勿令散失;于他们死后遵礼成服,妥为殡殓。轮到了父母,他们对子女也有某种责任:应避免子女堕入恶道,教令从事有益的活动,予以良好之教育,为他们从良好的家庭中择配,并于适当时机以家财付与。

Second: The relation between teacher and pupil: a pupil should respect and be obedient to his teacher; should attend to his needs if any; should study earnestly. And the teacher, in his turn, should train and shape his pupil properly; should teach him well; should introduce him to his friends; and should try to procure him security or employment when his education is over.
 
第二:师弟关系。弟子对师长必须恭敬服从,师有所需必须设法供应,并应努力学习。另一方面,老师必须善为训练弟子,使成良好模范;应当谆谆善诱,并为他介绍朋友;卒业之后更应为他谋职,以保障他生活的安定。

Third: The relation between husband and wife: love between husband and wife is considered almost religious or sacred. It is called sadāra-Brahmacariya ’sacred family life’. Here, too, the significance of the term Brahma should be noted: the highest respect is given to this relationship. Wives and husband should be faithful, respectful and devoted to each other, and they have certain duties towards each other: the husband should always honour his wife and never wanting in respect to her; he should love her and be faithful to her; should secure her position and comfort; and should please her by presenting her with clothing and jewellery. (The fact that the Buddha did not forget to mention even such a thing as the gifts a husband should make to his wife shows how understanding and sympathetic were his humane feelings towards ordinary human emotions). The fire, in her turn, should supervise and look after household affairs; should entertain guests, visitors, friends, relatives and employees; should love and be faithful to her husband; should protect his earnings; should be clever and energetic in all activities.
 
第三:夫妇关系。夫妇之爱,也被视为几乎是宗教性而神圣的,这种关系,叫做‘神圣的家庭生活(居家梵行)’。

这里面‘梵’字的意义又是值得注意的;就是说,这种关系也是应当付予最高敬意的。夫妇应当彼此忠实、互敬互谅,向对方尽其应尽之义务。丈夫应当礼遇其妻,决不可对她不敬。他应当爱她,对她忠实,巩固她的地位,使她安适,并赠以衣饰珠宝,以博取她的欢心。(佛甚至不忘提醒丈夫应以礼物赠与妻子,足见他对凡夫的情感是何等了解、同情而具有人情味。)轮到妻子的时候,她应当照顾家务,接待宾客、亲友和受雇的佣工;对丈夫爱护、忠实、守护他的收入,并在一切活动中保持机智与精勤。

Fourth: The relation between friends, relatives and neighbours: they should be hospitable and charitable to one another; should speak pleasantly and agreeably; should work for each others’ welfare; should be on equal terms with one another; should not quarrel among themselves; should help each other in need; and should not forsake each other in difficulty.

第四:亲邻关系。对于亲友邻居彼此之间均应殷勤款待,宽大慈惠。交谈时应当态度愉快,谈吐优雅。应为彼此之福祉而努力,并应平等相待,不可诤论。遇有所需,应互为周济,危难不相背弃。

Fifth: The relation between master and servant: the master or the employer has several obligations towards his servant or his employee: work should be assigned according to ability and capacity; adequate wages should be paid; medical needs should be provided; occasional donations or bonuses should be granted. The servant or employee, in his turn, should be diligent and not lazy; honest and obedient and not cheat his master; he should be earnest in his work.

第五:主仆关系。主人或雇主对他的雇工或奴仆也有好几种义务:应视其人的能力才干,分配工作及给以适量之工资;应提供医药服务,并应随时酌发奖金。雇工奴仆应勤勿惰,诚实服从,不可欺主。尤其应该忠于所事。

Sixth: The relation between the religious (lit. recluses and brāhmanas) and the laity: lay people should look after the material needs of the religious with love and respect; the religious with a loving heart should impart knowledge and learning to the laity, and lead them along the good path away from evil.

第六:僧俗关系(也就是沙门梵志等出家人与在家居士间的关系)。在家众应当敬爱出家众及供养他们的物质需要。出家人应以慈心教在家众,以智识学问灌输给他们,引导他们远离邪恶走向善道。

We see then that the lay life, with its family and social relations, is included in the ’noble discipline’, and is within the framework of the Buddhist way of life, as the Buddha envisaged it.

由此可见,居士的家庭和社会关系,已包括在圣律之中,而为佛教生活方式结构之一部,佛盖早已有见于此了。

So in the Samyutta-nikāya, one of the oldest Pali texts, Sakka, the king of the gods (devas), declares that he worships not only the monks who live a virtuous holy life, but also ’lay disciples (upāsaka) who perform meritorious deeds, who are virtuous, and maintain their families righteously’. [3]

因此,在最古老的巴利文原典之一的《杂部经》中,诸天之王——帝释,就曾宣称他不但尊奉有德的高僧,也尊奉广修善行以正道持家的有德居士。[注三]

If one desires to become a Buddhist, there is no initiation ceremony (or baptism) which one has to undergo. (But to become a bhikkhu, a member of the Order of the Sangha, one has to undergo a long process of disciplinary training and education). If one understands the Buddha’s teaching, and if one is convinced that his teaching is the right Path and if one tries to follow it, then one is a Buddhist. But according to the unbroken age-old tradition in Buddhist countries, one is considered a Buddhist if one takes the Buddha, the Dhamma (the Teaching) and the Sangha (the Order of Monks)- generally called ’the Triple-Gem’- as one’s refuges, and undertakes to observe the Five Precepts (Paňca-sila)-the minimum moral obligations of a lay Buddhist-(I) not to destroy life, (2) not a seal, (3) not to commit adultery, (4) not to tell lies, (5) not to take intoxicating drinks-reciting the formulas given in the ancient texts. On religious occasions Buddhists in congregation usually recite these formulas, following the lead of a Buddhist monk.

如果有人想做佛教徒,也可以毋须举行任何入教仪式(或洗礼)(但要成为僧伽的一员——比丘,则必须接受一段很长时间戒律方面的训练和教育),只要他对佛的教诫能够了解,也深信佛所教的是正道而尽力遵行,他也就可以算是一个佛教徒了。但在佛教国度里,依照历代相传不绝的传统,他尚须皈依佛、法(佛的教诫)、僧(比丘团体)——统称三宝,遵守五戒——居士所应尽的最低限度的道德本分,和读诵经偈。这样才能被承认为一个佛教徒。这五戒是:(一)不杀生,(二)不偷盗,(三)不邪淫,(四)不妄语,(五)不饮酒。遇到宗教节日或法会等,佛教徒们常聚集一处,由一位比丘领著大众,共诵经赞。

There are no external rites or ceremonies which a Buddhist has to perform. Buddhism is a way of life, and what is essential is following the Noble Eightfold Path. Of course there are in all Buddhist countries simple and beautiful ceremonies on religious occasions. There are shrines with statues of the Buddha, stūpas or dāgäbas and Bo-trees in monasteries where Buddhist worship, offer flowers, light lamps and burn incense. This should not be likened to prayer in theistic religions; it is only a way of paying homage to the memory of the Master who showed the way. These traditional observances, though inessential, have their value in satisfying the religious emotions and needs of those who are less advanced intellectually and spiritually, and helping them gradually along the Path.

做佛教徒,毋须举行任何仪式。佛教是一种生活方式,主要的是要遵守八正道。当然在所有佛教国度里,都有在法会时举行简单而优美的仪式。寺院里也有供奉佛像的佛龛、塔和菩提树,以供教徒瞻拜、献花、点灯、烧香。这种仪式,却不能与神教的祈祷相比。它只是为纪念一位指示迷津的导师所表示的仰幕之忱而已。这些传统的仪式,虽然是不必要的,却也有其价值。它能满足若干心智能力较低的人们宗教情绪方面的需要,而逐渐诱掖他们走上佛法的大道。

Those who think that Buddhism is interested only in lofty ideals, high moral and philosophical thought, and that is ignore the social and economic welfare of people, are wrong. The Buddha was interested in the happiness of men. To him happiness was not possible without leading a pure life based on moral and spiritual principles. But he knew that leading such a life was hard in unfavourable material and social conditions.

以为佛教是只注重崇高的理想,高深的道德与哲学思维,而不顾人民的社会与经济利益的人是错了。佛是很关心人类的快乐。可是他也很知道,如果物质社会环境不佳,想过这样的日子是困难的。

Buddhism does not consider material welfare as an end in itself: it is only a means to an end-a higher and nobler end. But it is a means which is indispensable, in dispensable in achieving a higher purpose for man’s happiness. So Buddhism recognizes the need of certain minimum material favourable to spiritual success-even that of a monk engaged in meditation in some solitary place. [4]

佛教并不认为使物质生活舒适,就是人生的目的。它只是达到一个更崇高的目的的条件。但是这条件却是不可缺少的。要想为了人类的幸福,达成更高的目标,这条件是少不了的。因此佛教承认,即使一个和尚在僻静的地方独自修习禅定止观,要想修习成功,最低限度的物质环境仍是必需的。[注四]

The Buddha did not take life out of the context of its social and economic background; he looked at it as a whole, in all its social, economic and political aspects. His teachings on ethical, spiritual and philosophical problems are fairy well known. But little is known, particularly in the West, about his teaching on social, economic and political matters. Yet there are numerous discourses dealing with these scattered throughout the ancient Buddhist texts. Let us take only a few examples.

佛并不将人生与它社会经济背景的关系剥离。他将它视为一个整体,顾到它社会、经济与政治的每一面。他有关伦理、精神与哲学问题的教诫,知道的人不少。可是关于他在社会、经济与政治方面的教诲,就少有人知了。这情形尤以在西方国家为然。但这方面的经典,散见于古佛籍中为数极多。现在试举几个例子如次:

The Cakkavattisihanāda-sutta of the Digha-nikāya (No.26) clearly states that poverty (dāliddiya) is the cause of immorality and crimes such as theft, falsehood, violence, hatred, cruelty, etc. Kings in ancient times, like governments today, tried to suppress crime through punishment. The Kūtadanta-sutta of the same Nikāya explains how futile this is. It says that this method can never be successful. Instead the Buddha suggests that, in order to eradicate crime, the economic condition of the people should be improved: grain and other facilities for agriculture should be provided for farmers and cultivators; capital should be provided for traders and those engaged in business; adequate wages should be paid to those who are employed. When people are thus provided for with opportunities for earning a sufficient income, they will be contented; will have no fear or anxiety, and consequently the country will be peaceful and free from crime. [5]

《巴利藏长部经第二十六经》(Cakkavattisihanada Sutta)中明明白白地说贫穷是一切非义与罪行之源。诸如偷盗、妄语、暴行、憎恚、残酷等,莫不由此而生。古代的帝王,和现代的政府一样,尽力想以惩罚来抑止暴行。同在这《长部经》里的另一经Kutadanta Sutta中已说明这种方法是何等的徒然。它说这种方法绝不能成功。反之,佛倡议要芟除罪恶,必须改善人民的经济状况:应当为农人提供稻谷种子和农具,为商贾提供资金,对雇工给予适当工资。人民都有了能够赚到足够收入的机会,就会感到心满意足,无有恐怖忧虑,结果就国泰民安、罪行绝迹了。[注五]

Because of this, the Buddha told lay people how important it is to improve their economic condition. This does not mean that he approved of hoarding wealth with desire and attachment, which is against his fundamental teaching, nor did he approve of each and every way of earning one’s livelihood. There are certain trades like the production and sale of armaments, which he condemns as evil means of livelihood, as we saw earlier. [6]

因为这缘故,佛就告诉在家众,改进经济的状况是非常的重要。但这并不是说他赞成屯积财富,贪求执著。那是和他的基本教诫大相迳庭的。他也不是对每一种的谋生方式都同意。有几种营生如制造贩卖军火等,他就严词斥责,认为是邪恶的生计。这在前文已经讲过。

A man named Dighajānu once visited the Buddha and said: ’Venerable Sir, we are ordinary lay men, leading the family life with wife and children. Would the Blessed One teach us some doctrines which will be conductive to our happiness in this world and hereafter.’

有一个叫做长生的人,有一次在拜访佛时说道:‘世尊啊!我们只是普通的居士,与妻子儿女一起过著家庭生活。可否请世尊教我们一些佛法,能使我们在今生后世都享有快乐?’

The Buddha tells him that there are four things which are conductive to a man’s happiness in this world: First: he should be skilled, efficient, earnest, and energetic in whatever profession he is engaged, and he should know it well (utthāna-sampadā); second: he should protect his income, which he has thus earned righteously, with the sweat of his brow (ārakkha-sampadā); (This refers to protecting wealth from thieves, etc. All these ideas should be considered against the background of the period.) third: he should have good friends (kalyāna-mitta) who are faithful, learned, virtuous, liberal and intelligent, who will help him along the right path away from evil; fourth: he should spend reasonably, in proportion to his income, neither too much nor too little, i.e., he should not hoard wealth avariciously, nor should he be extravagant- in other words he should live within his means (samajikatā).

佛即告诉他有四件事可使他现生得到快乐。第一:不论他从事那种职业,必须求精求效,诚恳努力,并熟谙其业务。第二:对于以其本身血汗换来的收益,必须善加守护(此处所指的是要将财物妥为收藏,以免为宵小所觊觎等。这些观念必须与当时的时代背景一起考虑。)第三:须亲近忠实、博学、有德、宽大、有智而能协助他远离邪途、走入正道的善知识。第四:用钱必须合理而与收入成比例,不可靡费,亦不可悭吝。意即不可贪心积聚财富,亦不可奢侈挥霍。换言之,应当量入为出。

Then the Buddha expounds the four virtues conducive to a layman’s happiness hereafter: (I) Saddhā: he should have faith and confidence in moral, spiritual and intellectual values; (2) Sila: he should abstain from destroying and harming life, from stealing and cheating, from adultery, from falsehood, and from intoxicating drinks; (3) Cāga: he should practice charity, generosity, without attachment and craving for wealth; (4) Paňňā: he should develop wisdom which leads to the complete destruction of suffering, to the realization of Nirvāna. [7]

接著,佛又解说四种可以导致在家众身后快乐的德行。(一)信:他应当坚信道德精神与理性的各种价值。(二)戒:他应当克制自己,不毁伤、杀害生物,不偷盗、欺诈,不邪淫,不妄语,不饮酒。(三)施:他应当奉行慈惠,对于财富无所贪著。(四)慧:他应当发展能够导致彻底灭苦、证入涅槃的智慧。[注六]


Sometimes the Buddha even went into details about saving money and spending it, as, for instance, when he told the young man Sigāla that he should spend one fourth of his income on his daily expenses, invest half in his business and put aside one fourth for any emergency. [8]

有时候,佛甚至于谈到如何用钱、如何储蓄的细则。比方说,他告诉善生童子,应当以他收入的四分之一作为日常费用,把一半投资在事业上,再把四分之一存起来以备急需。[注七]

Once the Buddha told Ānāthapindika, the great banker, one of his most devoted lay disciples who founded for him the celebrated Jetavana monastery at Sāvatthi, that a layman, who leads an ordinary family life, has four kinds of happiness. The first happiness is to enjoy economic security or sufficient wealth acquired by just and righteous means (atthi-sukha); the second is spending that wealth liberally on himself, his family, his friends and relatives, and on meritorious deeds (bhoga-sukha); the third to be free from debts (anana-sukha); the fourth happiness is to love a faultless, and a pure life without committing evil in thought, word or deed (anavajja-sukha). It must be noted here that three of these kinds are economic, and that the Buddha finally reminded the banker that economic and material happiness is ’not worth one sixteenth part’ of the happiness arising out of a faultless and good life. [9]

有一次佛告诉他的一位最忠诚的在家弟子,也就是为佛在舍卫国兴建有名的只园精舍的大富长者给孤独说:过著普通家庭生活的居士,有四种乐趣。第一:能享受以正当方法获得足够的财富与经济上的安全感。第二:能以此财富慷慨的用于自己、家人及亲友身上,并以之作种种善行。第三:无负债之苦。第四:可度清净无过而不造身口意三恶业的生活。此中可注意的是:四项中倒有三项是经济的。可是,最后佛还是提醒那位富翁,物质与经济方面的乐趣,比起由善良无过失的生活所生起的精神乐趣来,尚不及后者的十六分之一。[注八]

From the few examples given above, one could see that the Buddha considered economic welfare as requisite for human happiness, but that he did not recognize progress as real and true if it was only material, devoid of a spiritual and moral foundation. While encouraging material progress Buddhism always lays great stress on the development of the moral and spiritual character for a happy, peaceful and contented society.

从以上所举几个例子看来,可见佛认为,经济的福利对人生的乐趣是有其必要的。可是,他不承认仅是物质而没有精神与道德基础的进步是真正的进步。佛教虽然鼓励物质方面的进步,但其重心永远是放在精神与道德的开展方面,以谋求快乐、和平而知足的社会。

The Buddha was just as clear on politics, on war and peace. It is too well known to be repeated here that Buddhism advocates and preaches non-violence and peace as its universal message, and does not approve of any kind of violence or destruction of life. According to Buddhism there is nothing that can be called a ’just war’- which is only a false term coiled and put into circulation to justify and excuse hatred, cruelty, violence and massacre. Who decided what is just or unjust? The mighty and the victorious are ’just’, and the weak and the defeated are ’unjust’. Our war is always ’just’, and your war is always ’unjust’. Buddhism does not accept this position.

佛对于政治、战争与和平,也同样的清楚。佛教提倡宣扬和平非暴,并以之为救世的福音。他不赞成任何形式的暴力与杀生,这是人所共知的事,毋须在这里,多所辞费。佛教里没有任何可以称为‘正义之战’的东西。这只是一个制造出来的虚伪名目,再加以宣传,使成为憎恨、残酷、暴虐与大规模屠杀的借口与理由而已。谁来决定正义与不正义?强大的胜利者就是正义,弱小的失败者就是不义。我们的战争永远是正义的,而你们的战争就永远是不义的了。佛教并不接受这样的论点。

The Buddha not only taught non-violence and peace, but he even went to the field of battle itself and intervened personally, and prevented war, as in the case of the dispute between the Sākyas and the Koliyas, who were prepared to fight over the question of the waters of the Rohini. And his words once prevented King Ajātasattu from attacking the kingdom of the Vajjis.

佛不仅教导和平非暴,更曾亲赴战场劝阻战事之发生。释迦族与拘梨耶族因争卢呬尼河水,而准备诉之干戈的时候,佛出面阻止,即为一例。有一次,也是由于他的一言阻止了阿阇世王攻略跋耆国。

In the days of the Buddha, as today, there were rulers who governed their countries unjustly. People were oppressed and exploited, tortured and persecuted, excessive taxes were imposed and cruel punishments were inflicted. The Buddha was deeply moved by these inhumanities.

佛世和今天一样,也有不以正义治理国家的元首。人民受到压榨、掠夺、虐待与迫害、苛捐杂税、酷刑峻法。佛对这种不人道的措施,深感悲悯。《法句经》觉音疏中记载著说,他因此转而研究开明政府的问题。他的见地,必须与当时的社会经济与政治背景一起考虑,才能体会其意义。他使人了解一个政府的首脑人物们——君主、部长以及行政官吏们——如果腐败不公,则整个国家亦随之腐化堕落而失去快乐。一个快乐的国家,必须有一个公正的政府。这样一个公正廉明的政府如何能实现,在《佛本生经》[注九]里的十王法(国王的十种职责)经Dasa-raja-dhamma Sutta中,佛曾作过解释。

The Dhammapadatthakathā records that he, therefore, directed his attention to the problem of good government. His views should be appreciated against the social, economic and political background of his time. He had shown how a whole country could become corrupt, degenerate and unhappy when the heads of its government, that is the king, the ministers and administrative officers become corrupt and unjust. For a country to be happy it must have a just government. How this form of just government could be realized is explained by the Buddha in his teaching of the ’Ten Duties of the King’ (dasa-rāji-dhamma), as given in the Jātaka text. [10]

当然,古代的‘国王’一词,在今天应当用‘政府’一词来代替。因此,‘十王法’可适用于今日的一切政府官员,例如国家的元首、部长、政界领袖、立法及行政官吏等。

Of course the term ’king’ (Rāja) of old should be replaced today by the term ’Government’. The Ten Duties of the King’, therefore, apply today to all those who constitute the government, such as the head of the state, ministers, political leaders, legislative and administrative, etc.

十王法中的第一法条是豪爽、慷慨、慈善。执政的人,不可贪著财产,应当为了人民的福利而散财。

The first of the ’Ten Duties of the King’ is liberality, generosity, charity (dāna). The ruler should not craving and attachment to wealth and property, but should give it away for the welfare of the people.

第二:须有高尚的道德品性。绝不可杀生、欺诈、偷盗、剥削他人、邪淫、妄语及饮酒。也就是说,他最低限度必须能严守居士的五戒。
 
Second: A high moral character (sila). He should never destroy life, cheat, steal, and exploit other, commit adultery, utter, falsehood, and take intoxicating drinks. That is, he must at least observe the Five Precepts of the layman.

第三:为了人民的利益牺牲一切,准备放弃一切个人的安乐、名声,乃至生命。

Third: Sacrificing everything for the good of the people (pariccāga), he must be prepared to give up all personal comfort, name and fame, and even his life, in the interest of the people.

第四:诚实正直。执行职务的时候,必须不畏强梁,不徇私情,正心诚意,对人民无惘无欺。

Fourth: Honest and integrity (ajjava). He must be free from fear or favour in the discharge of his duties, must be sincere in his intentions, and must not deceive the public.

第五:仁慈温厚,性情和煦。

Fifth: Kindness and gentleness (maddava). He must posses a genial temperament.

第六:习惯节约,生活简单,不耽奢华,克己端严。

Sixth: Austerity in habits (tapa). He must lead a simple life, and should not indulge in a life of luxury. He must have self-control.

第七:无嗔无恚,亦无怨毒。不怀芥蒂,不念旧恶。

Seventh: Freedom from hatred, ill-will, enmity (akkadha). He should bear no grudge against anybody.

第八:不尚暴力。不但本身不肯伤害他人,并应尽力提倡和平,阻遏战争以及一切运用暴力毁伤生命之举措。

Eight: Non-violence (avihimsā), which means not only that he should harm nobody, but also that he should try to promote peace by avoiding and preventing war, and everything which involves violence and destruction of life.

第九:忍耐、自制、宽容、谅解。必须能够忍受困苦艰辛、讥刺横辱,不生嗔怒。

Ninth: Patient, forbearance, tolerance, understanding (khanti). He must be able to bear hardships, difficulties and insults without losing his temper.

第十:不为反逆梗阻之事。就是说,不做违反人民意愿之事,不梗阻任何有利人民的措施。换言之,治理人民,应与人民和谐相处。[注十]

Tenth: Non-opposition, non-obstruction (avirodha), that is to say that he should not oppose the will of the people, should not obstruct any measures that are conductive to the welfare of the people. In other words he should rule in harmony with his people. [11]

一国当政之人,如果具备有上述的德性,不用说,这国家一定是快乐的。但是这并不是一个乌托邦,因为在印度过去的时代中,就曾有过如阿输迦(阿育王)的国王,完全以前开的法条为其立国之本。

If a country id ruled by men endowed with such qualities, it is needless to say that that country must be happy. But this was not a Utopia, for there were kings in the past like Asoka of India who had established kingdoms based on these ideas.

今天的世界,经常处于恐怖、猜疑、紧张之中。科学所产生的武器,足以造成不可想像的毁灭。强国们挥舞著这种新式的死亡的工具,互相威胁挑衅,厚颜地互相夸耀各自的能力可以比对方造成更巨大的破坏与痛苦。

The world today lives in constant fear, suspicion, and tension. Science has produced weapons which are capable of unimaginable destruction. Brandishing these new instruments of death, great powers threaten and challenge one another, boasting shamelessly that one could cause more destruction and misery in the world than the other.

他们沿著这条疯狂之路前进,已到了一个地段,只要再向前迈进一步,其结果除了互相消灭并连带将全人类一齐毁掉之外,别无他途。
 
They have gone along this path of madness to such a point that now, if they take one more step forward in that direction, the result will be nothing but mutual annihilation along with the total destruction of humanity.

人类对于自己所造成的情况,深感恐惧。亟想找一条出路,谋求某种解决办法。但是除了佛所指示的以外,再没有别的方法。佛的福音就是非暴、和平、友爱、慈悲、容忍、谅解、求真理、求智慧、尊重一切生命、不自私、不憎恨、不逞强。

Human beings in fear of the situation they have themselves created, want to find a way out, and seek some kind of solution. But there is none except that held out by the Buddha – his message of non –violence and peace, of love and compassion, of tolerance and understanding, of truth and wisdom, of respect and regard of all life, of freedom from selfishness, hatred and violence.


佛说:‘仇恨永不能化解仇恨,只有仁爱可以化解仇恨,这是永恒的至理。’[注十一]又说:‘应以慈惠战胜嫉忿,以善胜恶,以布施胜自私,以真实胜虚诳。’[注十二]


The Buddha says: ’Never by hatred is hatred appeased, but it is appeased by kindness. This is an eternal truth.’ [12]

只要人类一天渴想征服他的同胞,人间就一天不会有和平快乐。如佛所说:‘战胜者滋长仇恨,战败者于哀痛中倒下。胜败俱泯的人才是快乐而和平的。’[注十三]

’One should win anger through kindness wickedness through goodness, selfishness through charity and falsehood through truthfulness.’ [13]

唯一能带来和平与快乐的征服是自我的征服。‘有人能在战阵中征服百万雄师,但是征服他自己的人,虽然只征服了一个人,却是一切战胜者中最伟大的。’[注十四]

There can be no peace or happiness for man as long as he desires and thirsts after conquering and subjugating his neighbour. As the Buddha says: ’The victor breeds hatred, and the defeated lies down in misery. He who renounces both victory and defeat is happy and peaceful.’ [14] The only conquest that brings peace and happiness is self-conquest. ’One may conquer millions in battle, but he who conquers himself, only one, is the greatest of conqueors.’ [15]

你要说这一切都很美、很高尚、很超绝,但是不切实际。互相憎恨就切实际吗?互相杀伐,像生存在丛林里的野兽一样终朝战战兢兢猜疑恐惧,是不是这样更切实际更安逸?曾有仇恨因仇恨而消解的吗?曾有邪恶被邪恶所战胜吗?可是却至少有若干个别的例子证明仇恨可因爱与慈惠而化解,邪恶为善良所战胜。你要说,也许这是事实,而在个人情形中也是可行的。但要应用到国家与国际事务上去,那是一定行不通的。人常为政治宣传所习用的术语如‘国’、‘邦’、‘国际’等所炫惑,心理迷蒙,盲目受骗。国家是什么?还不是一大群个人的集团?国与邦并不能有行动,有行动的就是个人。个人所想所做的,就是邦国所想所做的,能适用于个人的,就能适用于邦国。个人规模的仇恨,可以用爱与慈惠来化解,国家以及国际规模的仇恨化解,一定也同样地可以实现。就在个人方面,要用慈惠来对付仇恨,也须有极大的勇气以及对道义力量的信念、胆识与坚心。以国际事务而言,所需要的这一切自然更多。假如‘不切实际’一语的意义是‘不容易’,那倒是对的。这事决不容易,可是仍应勉力一试。你可以说这种尝试是冒险的,但决不会比尝试一场原子战争所冒的险更大。

You will say this is all very beautiful, noble and sublime, but impractical. It is practical to hate one another? To kill one another? To live in eternal fear and suspicion like wild animals in a jungle? Is this more practical and comfortable? Was hatred ever appeased by hatred? Was evil ever won over by evil? But there are examples, at least in individual cases, where hatred is appeased by love and kindness and evil won over by goodness. You will say that this may be true; practicable in individual cases, but that is never works in national and international affairs. People are hypnotized, psychologically puzzled, blinded and deceived by the political and propaganda usage of such term as ’national’, ’international’, or ’state’. What is a nation but a vast conglomeration of individuals? A nation or a state does not act; it is the individual who acts. What the individual thinks and does is what the nation or the state thinks and does. What is applicable to the individual is applicable to the nation or the state. If hatred can be appeased by love and kindness on the individual scale, surely it can be realized on the national and international scale too. Even in the case of a single person, to meet hatred with kindness one must be tremendous courage, boldness, faith and confidence in moral force. May it not be even more so with regard to international affairs? If by the expression ’not practical’ you mean ’not easy’, you are right. Definitely it is not easy. Yet it should be tried. You may say it is risky trying it. Surely it cannot be more risky than trying a nuclear war.

今日想起来,在过去曾有一位历史上著名的伟大统治者,他有勇气、有信心、有远见,敢于实施这倡导非暴、和平与友爱的教诲,将它们应用于治理一个广袤帝国的内外事务上,实在令人不胜忭慰之至。这位西元前三世纪顷的伟大佛教帝王阿输迦,曾被称为‘天人所敬爱者’。
 
It is a consolation and inspiration to think today that at least there was one great ruler, well known in history, who had the courage, the confidence and the vision to apply this teaching of non-violence, peace and love to the administration of a vast empire, in both internal and external affairs - Asoka, the great Buddhist emperor of India (3rd century B.C.) -’the Beloved of the gods’ as he was called.

At first he followed the example of his father (Bindusāra) and grandfather (Chandragupta), and wished to complete the conquest of the Indian peninsula. He invaded and conquered Kalinga, and annexed it. Many hundreds of thousands were killed, wounded, tortured and taken prisoner in this war. But later, when he became a Buddhist, he was completely changed and transformed by the Buddha’s teachings. In one of his famous Edicts, inscribed on rock, (Rock Edict XIII, as it is now called), the original of which one may read even today, referring to the conquest of Kalinga, the Emperor publicly expresses his ’repentance’, it was for him to think of that carnage. He publicly declared that he would never draw his sword again for any conquest, but that he ’wishes all living beings non-violence, self control, the practice of serenity and mildness. This, of course, is considered the chief conquest by the Beloved of the gods (i.e., Asoka), namely the conquest by piety (dhamma-vijaya).’ Not only did he renounce war himself, he expressed his desire that ’my sons and grandsons will not think of a new conquest as worth achieving. .. let them think of that conquest only which is the conquest by piety. That is good for this world and the world beyond.’

起先他完全步他父亲宾头沙罗王以及祖父旃陀菊多王的后尘,想要完成征服整个印度半岛的伟业。他侵入并征服了迦陵迦国,予以兼并。在这次战役中,杀伤掳获惨遭酷刑的人多达数十万众。但是他后来成了佛教徒,就完全改变作风,被佛的教诫所感化,前后判若两人。在他刻在岩石上的一道有名诰文(现在叫做第十三号诰文,原文至今尚在)中,他提到征伐迦陵迦之战。这位大帝公开表示忏悔,并说想到那次大屠杀,他感到极度的悲痛。他公开宣称,他将永远不再为任何征战而拔剑,而‘愿一切众生废除暴力,克己自制,实践沉静温和之教。’这当然是‘天人所敬爱者’(也就是阿输迦王)最大的胜利——以德服人的胜利。他不但自己摒弃战争,而且表示他要‘我的子子孙孙也不可认为新的征服是值得发动的······他们只许以德服人。’

This is the only example in the history of mankind of a victorious conquerer at the zenith of his power, still possessing the strength to continue his territorial conquests, yet renouncing war and violence and turning to peace and non-violence.

这是人类历史上惟一的例子。一位胜利的征服者,在他声威显赫、日丽中天的时候尽有余力继续扩充他的强域,却放弃了战争与暴力,转向和平与非暴。

Here is a lesson for the world today. The ruler of an empire publicly turned his back on war and violence and embraced the message of peace and non-violence. There is no historical evidence to show that any neighbouring king took advantage of Asoka’s piety to attack him militarily, or that there was any revolt or rebellion within his empire during his lifetime. On the contrary there was peace throughout the land, and even countries outside his empire seem to have accepted his benign leadership.

这是给今日世界的一项教训。一个帝国的统治者,公开的背弃战争与暴力,而遵奉和平与非暴的福音。并没有任何历史上的事迹足以证明有任何邻国的国王,因为阿育王修德而乘机以军力来攻击他,或是在他在世之日,他的帝国内部有任何叛逆的情事发生。反之,当时全境都充满和平,甚至他强域之外的国家,似乎也都接受了他仁慈的领导。

To talk of maintaining peace through the balance of power, or through the threat of nuclear deterrents, is foolish. The might of armaments can be produce fear, and not peace. It is impossible that there can be genuine and lasting peace through fear. Through fear can come only hatred, ill-will and hostility, suppressed perhaps, for the time being only, but ready to erupt and become violent at any moment. True and genuine peace can prevail only in an atmosphere of mettā, amity, free from fear, suspicion and danger.

高唱以列强的均势或以核子吓阻的威胁来维护和平的人,实在是愚蠢之极。军备的力量,只能产生恐怖,不能产生和平。靠恐怖是不可能有真正而永久的和平的。随恐怖而来的,只有憎恨,不善欲与敌忾。这些心理也许一时可以压抑得住,但随时都可以爆发而成为暴动。只有在友爱、亲善、无怖、无疑、安全无险的气氛中,真正的和平方能抬头。

Buddhism aims at creating a society where the ruinous struggle for power is renounced; where calm and peace prevail away from conquest and defeat; where the persecution of the innocent is vehemently denounced; where one who conquers oneself is more respected than those who conquer millions by military and economic welfare; where hatred is conquered by kindness, and evil by goodness, where enmity, jealousy, ill-will and greed do not infect men’s minds; where compassion is the driving force of actions; where all, including and love; where life peace and harmony, in a world of material contentment, is directed towards the highest and noblest aim, the realization of the Ultimate Truth, Nirvāna.


佛教的目的在创造一个社会。这社会摒斥毁灭性的权力之争,远离胜负之见而为和平与安宁所盘踞。在这里,迫害无辜必受严谴;能够克己自律的人比以军事及经济力量征服成百万众的人更受尊敬;仇恨被仁慈所征服,恶被善所征服;人心清净,不为仇恨、嫉妒、不善、贪欲所感染;慈悲是一切行为的原动力;一切众生,包括最微小的生命在内,都受到公平、体谅与慈爱的待遇。这社会里的生活平安而和谐,物质供应亦能令人满足。它最崇高最圣洁的目标是亲证最终的真理——涅槃。

[1] M I (PTS), pp.30-31.

[2] Ibid., pp.490 ff.

[3] S I (PTS), p. 234.

[4] MA I (PTS), p. 290f. (Buddhist monks, members of the order of the Sangha, are not expected to have personal expected to have personal property, but they are allowed to hold communal (Sanghika) property).

[5] D I (Colombo, 1929), p. 101.

[6] See above p.47.

[7] A (Colombo, 1929), pp. 786 ff.

[8] D III (Colombo, 1929), p. 115.

[9] A (Collombo, 1929), pp. 232-233.

[10] Jataka I, 260, 399; II, 400; III, 274, 320; V 119, 378.

[11] It is interesting to note here that the Five Principles or Pancba-sila in India’s foreign policy are in accordance with the Buddhist principles which Asoka, the great Buddhist emperor of India, applied to the administration of his government in the 3rd century B.C. The expression Pancba-sila (Five Precepts or Virtues), is itself a Buddhist term.

[12] Dhp. I 5.

[13] Ibid XVII 3.

[14] Ibid XV5.

[15] Ibid XIII 4.

注释:
 
一:见巴利文学会版《中部经》第一集第卅、卅一两页。
 
二:见巴利文学会版《中部经》第一集第四九零页以次各页。
 
三:见巴利文学会版《杂部经》第一集第二三四页。
 
四:见巴利文学会版《中部经》觉音疏第一集第二九零页‘佛教僧侣,亦即僧伽之一员,应不得拥有私产,但准予持有公产。’
 
五:见一九二九年哥仑坡版第一集第一零一页。
 
六:见一九二九年哥仑坡版《增支部经》第七八六页以次各页。
 
七:见同版《长部经》第三集第一一五页。
 
八:见一九二九年哥仑坡版《增支部经》第二三二、二三三两页。
 
九:见巴利文《本生经》第一集二六零及三九九页、第二集第四零零页,第三集第二七
 
四及三二零页,第五集第一一九及三七八页。
 
十:印度之外交政策亦有五原则,与该国之伟大佛教帝王阿输迦在西元前三世纪时所拟
 
以治理其政府的佛教原则,完全相符。这五原则称为Panca Sila,与佛教梵语之‘五戒’二字也完全相同。
 
十一:见巴利文《法句经》第一章第五节。
 
十二:见同书第十七章第三节。
 
十三:见同书第十五章第五节。
 
十四:见巴利文《法句经》第八章第四节。

(完)

愿以此功德,庄严佛净土,上报四重恩,下济三途苦。
若有见闻者,悉发菩提心,尽此一报身,同生极乐国


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