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佛陀的启示 第七章 修习:心智的培育 Chapter VII. Meditation or Mental Culture: Bhāvanā
 
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背景色

Chapter VII. Meditation or Mental Culture: Bhāvanā

第七章  修习:心智的培育

The Buddha said: 'O bhikkhus, there are two kinds of illness. What are those two? Physical illness and mental illness. There seem to be people who enjoy freedom from physical illness even for a year or two… even for a hundred years or more. But, O bhikkhus, rare n this world are those who enjoy freedom from mental illness even for one moment, except those who are free from mental defilements' (i.e., except arahants). [1]

佛说:‘比丘们!病有两种。那两种呢?肉体的病和心智的病。有人可以一年、两年、甚至一百年、一百多年肉体都不生病。但是,比丘们啊!世间除了心无染著的人(就是说,除了阿罗汉以外〔注一〕,心智方面能有片刻不生病的的人,都是稀有难得的啊!’

The Buddha's teaching, particularly his way of 'meditation', aims at producing a state of perfect mental health, equilibrium and tranquility. It is unfortunate that hardly any other section of the Buddha' teaching is so much misunderstood as 'meditation', both by Buddhists and non-Buddhists. The moment the word 'meditation' is mentioned, one thinks of an escape from the daily activities of life; assuming a particular posture, like a statue in some cave or cell in a monastery, in some remote place cut off from society; and musing on, or being absorbed in, some kind of mystic or mysterious thought or trance. True Buddhist 'meditation' does not mean this kind of escape at all. The Buddha's teaching on this subject was so wrongly, or so little understood, that in later times the way of 'meditation' deteriorated and degenerated into a kind of ritual or ceremony almost technical in its routine. [2]

佛的教诲,尤其是他所教的修习方法,其目的在培养健康、均衡和宁静的心理,使臻完美。不幸的是:佛教中几乎没有什么法门,像‘修习’那样被教徒及非教徒所误解。只要一提到‘修习’,马上就使人想到逃避日常生活,摆起某种姿势,像石窟里或寺院佛堂中的塑像一般,在远离尘嚣的处所,以从事某种秘密或神秘的冥想,或专住于神游。真正佛教的修习,完全不是这种的逃避。佛在这一主题方面所教的内容,大大的被误解或极少的被了解。以致到了后世,修习方法变质败坏,竟成为一种仪式,其手续繁杂几乎成为专门学问了。〔注二〕

Most people are interested in meditation or yoga in order to gain some spiritual or mystic powers like the 'third eye', which others do not posses. There was some time ago a Buddhist nun in India who was trying to develop a power to see through her ears, while she was still in the possession of the 'power' of perfect eye-sight! This kind of idea is nothing but 'spiritual perversion'. It is always a question of desire, 'thirst' for power.

大多数的人对于修习(或称瑜伽)有兴趣,其目的乃在获得若干精神或秘密的力量,诸如为旁人所无的‘第三只眼’等。若干年前,就曾有一位印度佛教尼师,想练成以耳视物的神通。而当时她的视力极好,并未丧失。这种念头无他,只是精神颠倒而已;所以仍然只是渴求权力的贪欲在作祟。

The word meditation is a very poor substitute for the original term bhāvanā, which means 'culture' or 'development', i.e., mental culture or mental development. The Buddhist bhāvanā, properly speaking, is mental culture in the full sense of the term. It aims at cleansing the mind of impurities and disturbances, such as lustful desires, hatred, ill-will, indolence, worries and restlessness, skeptical doubts, and cultivating such qualities as concentration, awareness, intelligence, will, energy, the analytical faculty, confidence, joy, tranquility, leading finally to the attainment of highest wisdom which sees the nature of things as they are, and realize the Ultimate Truth, Nirvāna.

英文中所用以代表巴利原文 bhavana (修习)的 meditation (沉思、冥索)一词,十分不妥。Bhavana 的意义是培育、发展,尤指心智的培育与发展。肯定点说,佛教中的修习,正是百分之百的心智培育的意思。它的目的,在涤荡淫欲、憎恚、怠惰、焦虑、不安、疑惑等心智方面的骚乱不净,一方面又培育集中的注意力、清明的心智、知识、意志力、精进力、分析力、自信、欢喜心、宁静的心境等优良品性,以冀最后导致如实知见一切事物本性的最高智慧,而证入最后的真理、涅槃。

There are two forms of meditation. One is the development of mental concentration (samatha or samādhi), of one-pointedness of mind (cittekaggatā, Skt, cittaikāgratā), by various methods prescribed in the texts, leading up to the highest mystic states such as 'the Sphere of Nothingness' or 'the Sphere of Neither-Perception-nor-Non-Perception'. All these mystic states, according to the Buddha, are mind-created, mind-produced, conditioned (samkhata). [3] They have nothing to do with Reality, Truth, Nirvāna. This form of meditation existed before the Buddha. Hence it is not purely Buddhist, but it is not excluded from the field of Buddhist meditation. However it is not essential for the realization of Nirvāna. The Buddha himself, before his Enlightenment, studied these yogic practices under different teachers and attained to the highest mystic states; but he was not satisfied with them, because they did not give complete liberation, they did not give insight into the Ultimate Reality. He considered these mystic states only as 'happy living in this existence' (ditthadhammasukhavihāra), or 'peaceful living' (santavihāra), and nothing more. [4]

修习有两种。一种是发展注意力使能集中,所谓心一境性(亦称奢摩他、三摩地、止等)。经中有许多方法,修之可达到最高的神秘境界如无所有处、非想非非想处等。这些境界,跟据佛说,都是心造心生的、是缘成的(有为法)。它们与实相、真理、涅槃无关。这一种的修习,在佛世以前已经有了。因此,它不是纯粹佛教的,但是佛教也并未将它从佛教的修习方法中剔除。可是这种方法并不是证入涅槃的要件。佛在自己证正觉以前,就曾在不同的师门下,学过这种瑜伽法门,而达到了最高的神秘境界。可是,他并不以之为满足,因为它们并不能予他以彻底的解脱,也不能使他亲见最终的实相。他认为这种神秘境界只是‘此生中愉快的生活’或‘平静的生活’,如此而已。〔注三〕

He therefore discovered the other form of 'meditation' known as vipassanā (Skt. Vipaśyanā or vidarśanā), 'Insight' into the nature of things, leading to the complete liberation of mind, to the realization of the Ultimate Truth, Nirvāna. This is essentially Buddhist 'meditation', Buddhist mental culture. It is an analytical method based on mindfulness, awareness, vigilance, observation.

因此,他发明了另一种的修习,叫做毗婆舍那(观),深刻地察照万物的本性,以导致心灵的完全解脱,而证入最终的真理、涅槃。这才是主要的佛教的修习的方法、佛教的心智培育法。它是跟据观察、警觉、洞照与忆念而作的一种分析法。

It is impossible to do justice to such a vast subject in a few pages. However an attempt is made here to give a very brief and rough idea of the true Buddhist 'meditation', mental culture or mental development, in a practical way.

在区区数页短纸中,要详论这一广泛的议题,是不可能的。以下只是一个简单粗浅的尝试,以略明真正的佛教修习——心智的培育或心智的发展——其实用的方法为如何而已。

The most important discourse ever given by the Buddha on mental development ('meditation') is called the Satipatthāna-sutta 'The Setting-up of Mindfulness' (No. 22 of the Digha-nikāya, or No. 10 of the Majjhima-nikāya). This discourse is so highly venerated in tradition that it is regularly recited not only in Buddhist monasteries, but also in Buddhist homes with members of the family sitting round and listening with deep devotion. Very often bhikkhus recite this sutta by the bed-side of a dying man to purify his last thoughts.

佛所说的法中,有关心智发展(修习)的最重要的一部经,叫做《念住经》(巴利文《长部第二十二经》或《中部第十经》)。这部经传统上极受尊敬。不但在寺院中经常定时背诵,在佛教家庭中亦复如是,而尤家人团坐虔诚聆听。比丘们亦常在垂死人的病榻边读诵此经,以净化临终者最后的念头。

The ways of 'meditation' given in this discourse are not cut off from life, nor do they avoid life; on the contrary, they are all connected with our life, our daily activities, our sorrows and joys, our words and thoughts, our moral and intellectual occupations.

这经中所创导的修习方法,既不离世亦不遁世。相反的,它与我们的生活、日常的活动、我们的忧悲喜乐、我们的语言思想、我们所从事的道德与理性的活动,靡不相关。

The discourse is divided into four main sections: the first section deals with our body (kāya), the second with our feelings and sensation (vedanā), the third with the wind (citta), and the fourth with various moral and intellectual subjects (dhamma).

这部经共分四大部份:第一部分是关于身体的,第二部分关于感觉与感受,第三部分关于心智,第四部分则关于各种道德的与理性的课题(法)。

It should be clearly borne in mind that whatever the form of 'meditation' may be, the essential thing is mindfulness or awareness (sati), attention or observation (anupassanā).

这里有一事必须明白牢记:不论修习什么方法,要紧的是念念分明,忆持不忘,并须注意观察。

One of the most well-known, popular and practical examples of 'meditation' connected with the body is called 'The mindfulness or Awareness of in-and-out breathing' (ānāpānasati). It is for this 'meditation' only that a particular and definite posture is prescribed in the text. For other forms of 'meditation' given in this sutta, you may sit, stand, walk, or lie down, as you like. But, for cultivating mindfulness of in-and-out breathing, one should sit, according to the text, 'cross-legged, keeping the body erect and mindfulness alert'. But sitting cross-legged is not practical and easy for people of all countries, particularly for Westerners. Therefore, those who find it difficult to sit cross-legged may sit on a chair, 'keeping the body erect and mindfulness alert'. It is very necessary for this exercise that the mediator should sit erect, but not stiff; his hands placed comfortably on his lap. Thus seated, you may close your eyes, or you may gaze at the tip of your nose, as it may be convenient to you.

有一个最为人所熟知、喜好而又是最实用的修习法门,叫做‘忆念出入息法(数息观)’。这是与身体有关的。只有在修习这一法门时,才需要采取一种经中指定的特别姿势。经里所指示的其他修习方法,就无此限制,无论行住坐卧都可随意为之。但修习数息观则必须跟据经典趺跏而坐,保持身躯端直而心念警觉。趺跏而坐不易实行,非一切国家人士(尤其是西方人士)所能清轻易办到。因此,趺跏坐有困难的人,可以坐在椅子上,只要身体端直,心神警觉就行。这项修习中,端坐极为重要,但不是僵坐。两手须很舒适地搁在膝上。如此坐定后,可将两眼闭合,或凝视鼻端,随各人方便为之。

You breathe in and out all day and night, but you are never mindful of it, you never for a second concentrate your mind on it. Now you are going to do just this. Breathe in and out as usual, without any effort or strain. Now, bring your mind to concentrate on your breathing-in and breathing-out; let your mind watch and observe your breathing in and out; let your mind be aware and vigilant of your breathing in and out. When you breathe, you sometimes take deep breaths, sometimes not. This does not matter at all. Breathe normally and naturally. The only thing is that when you take deep breaths you should be aware that they are deep breaths, and so on. In other words, your mind should be so fully concentrated on your breathing that you are aware of its movements and changes. Forget all other things, your surroundings, your environment; do not raise your eyes and look at anything. Try to do this for five or ten minutes.

每人日夜呼吸不停,但自己丝毫不觉,因为从未有人以分秒的时间,将心神贯注在呼吸上。而如今要做的,正是这个。(方法是)照平时一样的一呼一吸,丝毫不要用力。只将精神集中于这呼出吸入上,凝神观察这吸进呼出的动作,保持对这呼吸的警觉,使时刻都了了分明于这一动态。你呼吸时,有时深,有时浅。这并不打紧,只顾自自然然的呼吸去。惟一的一点是你在深呼吸时,心中须有数这些是深呼吸,如此这般。换言之,你的心力须集中在呼吸上,使你对于它的动作变化,无不了然于心。忘掉你的周围环境以及其他一切事物,不可抬眼视物,这样的试练五至十分钟。

At the beginning you will find it extremely difficult to bring your mind to concentrate on your breathing. You will be astonished how your mind runs away. It does not stay. You begin to think of various things. You hear sounds outside. Your mind is disturbed and distracted. You may be dismayed and disappointed. But if you continue to practice this exercise twice daily, morning and evening, for about five or ten minutes at a time, you will gradually, by and by, being to concentrate your mind on your breathing. After a certain period, you will experience just that split second when your mind is fully concentrated on your breathing, when you will not hear even sounds nearby, when no external world exists for you. This slight moment is such a tremendous experience for you, full of joy, happiness and tranquility, that you would like to continue it. But still you cannot. Yet if you go on practising this regularly, you may repeat the experience again and again for longer and longer periods. That is the moment when you loose yourself completely in your mindfulness of breathing. As long as you are conscious of yourself you can never concentrate on anything.

开头的时候,你会发觉全神灌注在呼吸上,非常的不容易。你会奇怪你的心这么这样会跑,它就是不肯停下来。你想东想西,耳中只听到外面的声音。你的脑筋混乱、思绪纷飞。你也会觉得沮丧失望。但是如果你继续不停的练习,每天早晚各一次,每次五至十分钟,慢慢的,你的心就会集中在呼吸上了。过了一段时间,你就会经验到一刹那(的定境),你的心神全部灌注在呼吸上,连近身的声音也都充耳不闻,一时间外境俱泯。这一短时间的(定境),是一种了不起的经验,充满了喜悦与宁静。你但愿能继续保持它,但是这时你还作不到这一点。不过只要你经常不停的练习,这种经验可以一次又一次的发生,而每次定的时间也会逐渐加长。这就是你系心於呼吸上至忘我之境的时候了。只要你老觉得有你自己存在,你就不能集中注意力于任何别的东西。

This exercise of mindfulness of breathing, which is one of the simplest and easiest practices, is meant to develop concentration leading up to very high mystic attainments (dhyāna). Besides, the power of concentration is essential for any kind of deep understanding, penetration, insight into the nature of things, including the realization of Nirvāna.
 
这个念念不离呼吸的修习法,是最简单、最容易的一种。其目的在发展注意力,以达到非常高的禅定境界。此外,集中注意力(定力),对于任何深刻的了解、深透的内观,以洞察万物的本性包括体证涅槃,都是不可或缺的。

Apart from all this, this exercise on breathing gives you immediate results. It is good for your physical health, for relaxation, sound sleep, and for efficiency in your daily work. It makes you calm and tranquil. Even at moments when you are nervous or excited, if you practice this for a couple of minutes, you will see for yourself that you become immediately quiet and at peace. You feel as if you have awakened after a good rest.

除了这些,呼吸的练习更有立竿见影的效验。它对你健康上大有裨益;能增进你的安眠,松弛紧张的身心,增进日常工作的效率。它能使你宁静安详。即令在你精神紧张或兴奋的时候,如果练习几分钟的数息,你就会马上觉得安静平定了下来,好像在一段休息之后刚刚觉醒一般。

Another very important, practical, and useful form of 'meditation' (mental development) is to be aware and mindful of whatever you do, physically or verbally, during the daily routine of work in your life, private, public or professional. Whether you walk, stand, sit, lie down, or sleep, whether you stretch or bend your limbs, whether you look around, whether you put on your clothes, whether you talk or keep silence, whether you eat or drink, even whether you answer the calls of nature- in these and other activities, you should be fully aware and mindful of the act you perform at the moment. That is to say, that you should live in the present moment, in the present action. This does not mean that you should not think of the past or the future at all. On the contrary, you think of them in relation to the present moment, the present action, when and where it is relevant.

另一种非常重要、实用而有益的修习方法(心智的发展)是:不论在做什么事情的时候,动手也好,日常起居也好,从事公私工作也好,要时刻念兹在兹了了分明于你的每一举动。你或卧或立或坐或行,或安眠,或曲臂伸腿,回顾前瞻,穿衣吃饭,言谈静默,大小便利,凡此一切以及其他种种活动,你必须时时刻刻了了分明于你所作的每一动作。也就是说,你必须生活在当前的瞬间中、现在的行为中。这并不是说你不应想到过去未来。相反的,你在与眼前的时刻行为有关的方面,一样可以想到过去未来。

People do not generally live in their actions, in the present moment. They live in the past or in the future. Though they seem to be doing something now, here, they live somewhere else in their thoughts, in their imaginary problems and worries, usually in the memories of the past or in desires and speculations about the future. Therefore they do not live in, nor do they enjoy, what they do at the moment. So they are unhappy and disconnected with the present moment, with the work at hand, and naturally they cannot give themselves fully to what they appear to be doing.

一般的人,并不生活在他们眼前的生活中,他们都生活在过去或未来里。虽然看外表他们似乎是在此时此地做著些什么,实际上,他们是生活在他们思想中的另一世界里,生活在虚构的问题与苦闷里。通常他们是活在过去的记忆中,或对未来的欲望与悬揣之中。因此,他们并不生活在他们目前在做的工作里,也不乐于这工作。所以,他们就对现况不满、不开心,而自然而然的不能对当前像是在做的工作,献出全部的身心了。

Sometimes you see a man in a restaurant reading while eating a very common sight. He gives you the impression of being a very busy man, with no time even for eating. You wonder whether he eats or reads. One may say that he does both. In fact, he does neither, he enjoys neither. He is strained, and disturbed in mind, and he does not enjoy what he does at the moment, does not live his life in the present moment, but unconsciously and foolishly tries to escape from life. (This does not mean, however, that one should not talk with a friend while having lunch or dinner.)

有时你在餐馆里,看见有人一边吃饭一边阅读,这是一种很常见的事。他给你的印象是一个大忙人,连吃东西都没有时间。你不知道他到底是在吃东西,还是在阅读。你也许可以说他正两事一起做,而实际上,他那样也没做,也那样都做得没味道。他的心神不宁而紧张,不乐意做目前正在做的事,不生活在眼前的瞬间,却不知不觉地、愚蠢地想要逃避人生。(这意思却不是说在吃饭的时候不可以和朋友谈天)。

You cannot escape life however you may try. As long as you live, whether in a town or in a cave, you have to face it and live it. Real life is the present moment-not the memories of the past which is dead and gone, nor the dreams of the future which is not yet born. One who lives in the present moment lives in the real life, and he is happiest.

不论你想什么办法,你都无法逃避人生。只要你活著,不管是在村镇里,还是在岩窟里,你必须面对人生而生活。真正的生活,是眼前的瞬间,不是已经死掉而消逝了的过去回忆,也不是尚未出生的未来梦想。一个生活在眼前的瞬间中的人,所过的才是真正的人生,而他也是最快乐的人。

When asked why his disciples, who lived a simple and quiet life with only one meal a day, were so radiant, the Buddha replied: 'They do not repent the past, nor do they brood over the future. They lived in the present. Therefore, they are radiant. By brooding over the future and repenting the past, fools dry up like green reeds cut down (in the sun).' [5]

有人问佛,为什么他的弟子们过著简单平静的生活,每天只吃一餐,却如此精神焕发?佛说:‘他们不悔既往,不瞑索将来。他们生活在现前的时间中,因此他们都神采奕奕。愚蠢的人,又冥索未来,又追悔过去,就像碧绿的芦苇在骄阳中被刈断一般,一下子就枯萎了。’〔注四〕

Mindfulness, or awareness, does not mean that you should think and be conscious 'I am doing this' or 'I am doing that'. No. Just the contrary. The moment you think 'I am doing this' you become self-conscious, and then you do not live in the action, but you live in the idea 'I am', and consequently your work too is spoilt. You should forget yourself completely, and lose yourself in what you do. The moment a speaker becomes self-conscious and thinks 'I am addressing an audience', his speech is disturbed and his trend of thought broken. But when he forgets himself in his speech, in his subjects, then he is at his best, he speaks well and explains thing clearly. All great work- artistic, poetic, intellectual or spiritual- is produced at those moments when its creators are lost completely in their actions, when they forget themselves altogether, and are free from self-consciousness.

修习念住法,并不是要你想或是觉得‘我在做这个’、‘我在做那个’。不对!恰正相反。你一想到‘我再做这个’,你就觉得有个自己而不能生活在你的行为中了。你是生活在‘我存在’的意念里,而你的工作也就糟蹋了。你应当完全忘了自己,而全心全意的浸润在工作中。一个演讲者一自觉到‘我对听众演讲’,他的讲话就混乱了,思绪也不连贯了。但是如果他一心讲演他的题目,整个地忘了自己,他的表现才是最好的。他一定讲得很精彩,解释的很明白。一切伟大的杰构,艺术的、诗歌的、智识的、心灵的,都是在它们的创作人完全浸润在工作中的时候所产生的,在他们完全忘我而不自觉的时候所产生。

This mindfulness or awareness with regard to our activities, taught by the Buddha, is to live in the present moment, to live in the present action. (This is also the Zen way which is based primarily on this teaching.) Here in this form of meditation, you haven't got to perform any particular action in order to develop mindfulness, but you have only to be mindful and aware of whatever you may do. You haven't got to spend one second of your precious time on this particular 'meditation': you have only to cultivate mindfulness and awareness always, day and night, with regard to all activities in your usual daily life. These two forms of 'meditation' discussed above are connected with our body.

这个佛所传授的,在一切时中都要念念分明(的念住法),也就是要生活在眼前的一瞬间里,生活在眼前的活动里。(禅宗的方法,也是脱胎于此项教导。)在这一种修习法门里,你无须实施某种特定的活动才能发展念念分明的能力。你只须随时了知你所做的一切事,你不必专为特定的修习方法花费一秒钟的宝贵时间。你只要养成经常警觉的习惯,不分昼夜,在日常生活中的一切活动上,时刻都了了分明就可以了。上述两种修习方法,都与我们的身体有关。

Then there is a way of practicing mental development ('meditation') with regard to all our sensations or feeling, whether happy unhappy or neutral. Let us take only one example. You experience an unhappy, sorrowful sensation. In this state your mind is cloudy, hazy, not clear, it is depressed. In some cases, you do not even see clearly why you have that unhappy feeling. First of all, you should learn not to be unhappy about your unhappy feeling, not to be worried about your memories. But try to see clearly why there is a sensation or a feeling of unhappiness, or worry, or sorrow. Try to examine how it arises, its cause, how it disappears, and its cessation. Try to examine it as if you are observing it from outside, without any subjective reaction, as a scientist observes some object. Here, too, you should not look at it as 'my feeling' or 'my sensation' subjectively, but only look at it as 'a feeling' or 'a sensation' objectively. You should forget again the false idea of 'I'. When you see its nature, how it arises and disappears, your mind grows dispassionate towards that sensation, and becomes detached and free. It is the same with regard to all sensations or feelings.

还有一种发展心智的方法,是关系我们的一切感受的;愉快的、不愉快的、既非愉快亦非不愉快的。举一个例子:比方你正经验到一种不快乐而悲哀的情绪。在这种情况下,你的头脑模糊不清,情绪低落。有时候,你甚至于不明白为什么会有这种不快的情绪。第一,你得先训练自己不为不快的情绪而不快,不要为了烦恼而益增烦恼。而须设法清楚的看到为什么会有不快、烦恼或悲哀的情绪或感觉。设法审察它如何生起,生起的原因,以及如何消失,如何止息。要以一种置身事外的态度去观察审度它,不要有丝毫主观的反应;须像科学家观察事物一样。在这里,你也不可以‘我的感觉’、‘我的情绪’的主观态度来看它,而只应客观地视之为‘一种感觉’、‘一种情绪’。你又得忘掉‘我’的虚妄观念。你一旦看出它的本质,它如何生起,如何消失,你心中对这情绪就渐渐的变得冷静淡漠,无动于中,而成为超脱自在。对于一切感受与情绪都是如此。

Now let us discuss the form of 'meditation' with regard to our minds. You should be fully aware of the fact whenever your mind is passionate or detached, whenever it is overpowered by hatred, ill-will, jealousy, or is full of love, compassion, whenever it is deluded or has a clear and right understanding, and so on and so forth. We must admit that very often we are afraid or ashamed to look at one's own mind as one looks at one's face in a mirror. [6]

现在来谈谈有关心的修习。在你的情感热烈奔放或泰然自若的时候,心中充满嗔恚、嫉妒或是柔情、慈悲的时候,头脑昏迷惶惑或是清楚明了的时候,凡此等等的时候,你对这种种情况都须完全有数。我们必须承认,我们常常不敢或羞于观察自心;所以,我们宁愿逃避它。我们应当勇敢诚恳的去正视自己的心念,就像在镜中看自己的脸一样。〔注五〕

Here is no attitude of criticizing or judging, or discriminating between right and wrong, or good and bad. It is simply observing, watching, examining. You are not a judge, but a scientist. When you observe your mind, and see its true nature clearly, you become dispassionate with regard to its emotions, sentiments and states. Thus you become detached and free, so that you may see things as they are.

这时,我们的态度,不是批评裁判,也不是分辨是非善恶,只是单纯的观察、侦视、审度。你不是一位法官,而是一位科学家。你观察你的心,清清楚楚地看到它的真实性质时,你就不再会对它的情感、情绪与各种状态产生意象。这一来你就变得超脱自在,而能够如实了知万物的本来面目了。

Let us take one example. Say you are really angry, overpowered by anger, ill-will, and hatred. It is curious, and paradoxical, that the man who is in anger is not really aware, not mindful that he is angry. The moment he becomes aware and mindful of that state of his mind, the moment he sees his anger, it becomes, as if it were, shy and ashamed, and begins to subside. You should examine its nature, how it arises, how it disappears. Here again it should be remembered that you should not think 'I am angry', or of 'my anger'. You should only be aware and mindful of the state of an angry mind. You are only observing and examining an angry mind objectively. This should be the attitude with regard to all sentiments, emotions, and states of mind.
 
举一个例来说:比方你真的生气了。气愤与憎恨心理使你失去了理性。奇怪而矛盾的是:一个生气的人,并不真正的知道他在生气。一旦他察觉这一心境,看到自己在生气,他的怒火就好像变得不好意思,似乎自知其可耻而开始平息。你应当审察它的性质,如何生起?如何消失?这时你又须切记:不可想‘我在生气’或想到‘我的怒火’。你只须明白了知你生气的心情,以客观的态度去观察它、审查它。对一切情绪、情感与心境,都应采取这一态度。

Then there is a form of 'meditation' on ethical, spiritual and intellectual subjects. All our studies, reading discussions, conversation and deliberations on such subjects are included in this 'meditation'. To read this book, and to think deeply about the subjects discussed in it, is a form of meditation. We have seen earlier[7] that the conversation between Khemaka and the group of monks was a form of meditation which led to the realization of Nirvāna.

另外,还有一种对于伦理、心灵与理性方面问题的修习。我们对这类课题所做的一切研究、阅读、商讨、谈论、思索,都包括在这类修习之内。阅读本书并对书内所讨论的题目作深刻的思考,都是一种修习。在前面,我们已经看到差摩迦与一群比丘的一席话曾导致全体共证涅槃。这也是一种修习。

So, according to this form of meditation, you may study, think, and deliberate on the Five Hindrances, (Nivarana), namely:

因此,用这一种的修习方法,你可以研究、思量、审度下列的五盖:

lustful desires (kāmacchanda)
ill-will, hatred or anger (vyāpāda)
torpor and languor (thina-middha)
restlessness and worry (uddhacca-kukkucca),
sceptical doubts (vicikicchā)

(一)贪欲,(二)嗔恚,(三)睡眠,(四)掉悔,(五)疑法。

These five are considered as hindrances to any kind of clear understanding, as a matter of fact, to any kind of progress. When one is over-powered by them and when one does not know how to get rid of them, then one cannot understand right and wrong, or good and bad.
 
这五盖就是防碍任何明觉,事实上也就是防碍任何进步的五种障碍。一个人如果被这五盖所覆蔽而不知怎样去祛除它们,他就不能分辨是非善恶。

One may also 'meditate' on the Seven Factors of Enlightenment (Bojjhanga). They are:

你也可以修习七觉支,就是:

Mindfulness (sati), i.e., to be aware and mindful in all activities and movements both physical and mental, as we discussed above

(一)念觉支:无论在从事精神或肉体活动的时候,随时保持念念分明,如前文所述。

Investigation and research into the various problems of doctrine (dhamma-vicaya). Included here are all our religious, ethical and philosophical studies, reading, researches, discussions, conversation, even attending lectures relating to such doctrinal subjects


(二)择法觉支:钻研探究各种有关教义的问题。这包括一切宗教、伦理、以及哲学的学习、阅读、研究、讨论、交谈、和参考有关教义的专题演讲等。

Energy (viriya), to work with determination till the end

(三)精进觉支:以坚定的决心,努力不懈,以底于成。

Joy (piti), the quality quite contrary to the pessimistic, gloomy or melancholic attitude of mind
 
(四)喜觉支:与消极、忧郁、悲愁、适正相反的心里状态。

Relaxation (passaddhi) of both body and mind. One should not be stiff physically or mentally

(五)轻安觉支:身心的松弛,勿令身心僵硬呆滞。

Concentration (samādhi), as discussed above

(六)定觉支:前文已论及。

Equanimity (upekkhā), i.e., to be able to face life in all its vicissitudes with calm of mind, tranquillity, without disturbance.
 
(七)行舍觉支:以宁静安详、不惧不乱的心情,应付人生一切变故。

To cultivate these qualities the most essential thing is a genuine wish, will, or inclination. Many other material and spiritual conditions conductive to the development of each quality are described in the texts.

要培育这些德性,最重要的事,是要有一个真正的誓愿,立定一个百折不挠的志向。至于发展上述每一种品性所必须具备的物质以及精神条件,本书中另有叙述。

One may also 'meditate' on such subjects as the Five Aggregates investigating the question 'What is a being?' or 'What is it that is called I?' or on the Four Noble Truths, as we discussed above. Study and investigation of those subjects constitute this fourth form of meditation, which leads to the realization of Ultimate Truth.
 
你也可以用五蕴做修习的题目,如参究‘何为众生?’‘叫做我的是什么?’等问题。也可以用四谛,如前文所论。参究这些问题,就构成第四种的修习方法(即法念住),以导致最高真理的亲证。

Apart from those we have discussed here, there are many other subjects of meditation, traditionally forty in number, among which mention should be made particularly of the four Sublime States:(Brahma-vihāra): (I) extending unlimited, universal love and good-will (mettā) to all living beings without any kind of discrimination, 'just as a mother loves her only child'; (2) compassion (karunā) for all living beings who are suffering, in trouble and affliction; (3) sympathetic joy(muditā) in other' success, welfare and happiness; and (4) equanimity (upekkhā) in all vicissitudes of life.

除了在这里所讨论者以外,尚有许多修习的题目。照传统说共有四十种之多。其中特别值得一提的,是所谓四无量心的修习。(一)慈心无量:将无限量的慈心,普爱一切众生,不分轩轾,犹如慈母钟爱独子,一般无二。(二)悲心无量:对一切在灾难痛苦中的众生,普遍以悲心护持被覆。(三)喜心无量:对他人的成功、福祉及快乐,寄以无限同情的喜悦。(四)舍心无量:对人生一切变迁泰然自若。

[1] A (Colombo, 1929), p. 276.

[2] The Yogāvacara's Manual (Edited by T.W. Rhys Davids, London, 1896), a text on meditation written in Ceylon probably about the 18th century, shows how meditation at the time had generated into a ritual of reciting formulas, burning candles, etc. See also Chapter VII on the Ascetic Ideal, History of Buddhism in Ceylon by Walpola Rahula, (Colombo, 1956), pp. 199 ff.

[3] See Above p.38.

[4] See Sallekha-sutta (no. 8), of M.

[5] S I (PTS), p. 5.

[6] M I (PTS), p. 100.

[7] See above p. 65

注释:
 
一:见一九二九年哥仑坡《增支部经》第二七六页。
 
二:锡兰十八世纪时的一本著作‘瑜珈行者手册’(一八九六年伦敦.戴维兹氏校订本),证明当时的修习内容已败坏到成为一个诵经燃烛的仪式而已。关于此点,并请参阅本书著者所著‘锡兰佛教史’(一九五六年哥仑坡版)第十二章‘苦行主义’第一九九页起各段。
 
三:见《中部经》第八 Sullekha Sutta。
 
四:见巴利文学会版《杂部经》第一集第五页。
 
五:见同版《中部经》第一集第一○○页。


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 佛陀的启示 第一章 佛教的宗教态度 Chapter I. The B.. 佛陀的启示 第二章 第一圣谛:苦谛 Chapter II. The ..
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