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佛陀的启示 第二章 第一圣谛:苦谛 Chapter II. The First Noble Truth: Dukkha
 
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背景色

The Four Noble Truths

Chapter II. The First Noble Truth: Dukkha

第二章 四圣谛

第一圣谛——苦谛

The heart of the Buddha's teaching lies in the Four Noble Truths (Cattāri Ariyasaccāni) which he expounded in his very first sermon[1] to his old colleagues, the five ascetics, at Isipatana (modern Sarnath) near Benares. In the sermon, as well have it in the original texts, these four Truths are given briefly. But there are innumerable places in the early Buddhist scriptures where they are explained again and again, with greater detail and in different ways. If we study the Four Noble Truths with the help of these references and explanations, we get fairly good and accurate account of the essential teachings of the Buddha according to the original texts.

在佛陀的教法中,四圣谛可算是其中的心要了。他在波罗奈附近的鹿野苑(今印度沙纳特地方),向他的老同修——五苦行者作第一次说法时﹝注一﹞,所讲的就是这个。这次说法的原文尚在,其中只是简单地叙述了一下四谛。但是在早期的佛典中,有无数的地方,都是反覆阐明四谛的,解释得很详细,解释的方法也不同。如果利用这种资料和注疏来研究四圣谛,便不难根据原典,对佛教的要义,作一个相当完善而正确的阐释。

The Four Noble Truths are:

四圣谛是:

Dukkha
(一)苦谛。(注一)
Samudaya, the arising or origin of dukkha
(二)集谛:苦之生起或苦之根源。
Nirodha, the cessation of dukkha
(三)灭谛:苦之止息。
Magga, the way leading to the cessation of dukkha
(四)道谛:导致苦之止息的途径。

The First Noble Truth: Dukkha

第一圣谛——苦谛

The First Noble Truth (Dukkha-ariyasacca) is generally translated by almost all scholars as 'The Noble Truth of Suffering', and it is interpreted to mean that life according to Buddhism is nothing but suffering and pain. Both translation and interpretation are highly unsatisfactory and misleading. It is because of this limited, free and easy translation, and its superficial interpretation, that many people have been misled into regarding Buddhism as pessimistic.

几乎所有的学者,(在英文著作里)都将第一圣谛译成‘苦难圣谛( The Noble Truth of Suffering)’,并且将它的意义解释为:‘根据佛教,生命除了苦难与哀痛之外,别无他物。’这种翻译及释义极难令人满意,而且易致误会。就因为这种狭义、粗疏而草率的翻译,以及肤浅的阐释,才使得许多人发生错觉,以为佛教是悲观的。

First of all, Buddhism is neither pessimistic nor optimistic. If anything at all, it is realistic, for it takes a realistic view of life and of the world. It looks at things objectively (yathābūtam). It does not falsely lull you into living in a fool's paradise, nor does it frighten and agonize you with all kinds of imaginary fears and sins. It tells you exactly and objectively what you are and what the world around you is, and shows you the way to perfect freedom, peace, tranquillity and happiness.

先说,佛教是既非悲观的,也非乐观的。如果一定要说它怎么样,毋宁说它是‘实观’的。因为它对人生、对世界的观点是如实的。它以客观的眼光看一切事物,既不诳骗你,使你在一个愚人的乐园中,醉生梦死的度过一生;也不以各种虚幻的恐惧与罪恶来恫吓、折磨你。它只是客观而正确地告诉你:你是什么?你周围的世界又是什么?并为你指出走向十足自由、和平、宁静与快乐的途径。

One physician may gravely exaggerate an illness and give up hope altogether. Another may ignorantly declare that there is no illness and that no treatment is necessary, thus deceiving the patient with a false consolation. You may call the first one pessimistic and the second optimistic. Both are equally dangerous. But a third physician diagnoses the symptoms correctly, understands the cause and the nature of the illness, sees clearly that it can be cured, and courageously administers a course of treatment, thus saving his patient. The Buddha is like the last physician. He is the wise and scientific doctor for the ills of the world (Bhisakka) or Bhaisajya-guru).

有的医生会过份夸大病情,对它放弃一切希望。有的医生会愚昧地宣称根本无病,不需要治疗,以虚妄的安慰来欺骗病人。你也许可以叫前者为悲观的,后者为乐观的。两者都是同样的危险。可是另有一类医生,却能把症候诊断得很正确;他了解疾病的原因与性质,很清楚地看到这种病可以治愈,而且果敢地采取治疗措施,因而救了病人一命。佛就像这第三类的医师。他是拯救世间疾患的,有智慧而且合乎科学的科学的医师(药师佛)(此药师佛并非大乘经中之东方净土药师佛。——张澄基注)

It is true that the Pali word dukka (or Sanskrit dukka) in ordinary usage means 'suffering', 'pain', 'sorrow' or 'misery', as opposed to the word sukha meaning 'happiness', 'comfort' or 'ease'. But the term dukkha as the First Noble Truth, which represents the Buddha's view of life and the world, has a deeper philosophical meaning and connotes enormously wider senses. It is admitted that the term dukkha in the First noble Truth contains, quite obviously, the ordinary meaning of 'suffering', but in addition it also includes deeper ideas such as 'imperfection', 'impermanence', 'emptiness', 'insubstantiality'. It is difficult therefore to find one word to embrace the whole conception of the term dukkha as the First Noble Truth, and so it is better to leave it untranslated, than to give an inadequate and wrong idea of it by conveniently translating it as 'suffering' or 'pain'.

巴利文‘苦’Dukkha(梵文作Duhkha)一字,在一般用法上,诚然有‘苦难’、‘痛苦’、‘忧悲’、‘苦恼’等意义,而与 Sukha一字之具有‘快乐’、‘舒适’、‘安逸’等意义相反。但用在第一圣谛上时,它代表了佛对人生宇宙的看法,包含有更深的哲学意义,它所诠释的范畴也大大地扩充了。不可否认的,第一圣谛的‘苦’,显然含有通常的‘苦难’意义在内,但是它还包含更深的意念,如‘缺陷’、‘无常’、‘空’、‘无实’等。因此,要找一个(英文)字而具有第一圣谛‘苦’(Dukkha)的全部概念,是很困难的事。所以,(在英文里)这个字最好不翻,以免轻易将它译为‘苦难’或‘痛苦’,反到令人生起不合适而错误的意念。

The Buddha does not deny happiness in life when he says there is suffering. On the contrary he admits different forms of happiness, both material and spiritual, for laymen as well as for monks. In the anguttara-nikāya, one of the five original Collections in Pāli containing the Buddha's discourses, there is a list of happinesses (sukhāni), such as the happiness of family life and the happiness of the life of a recluse, the happiness of sense pleasures and the happiness of attachment and the happiness of detachment, physical happiness and mental happiness etc. [2] But all these are included in dukkha. Even the very pure spiritual states of dhyāna (recueillement or trance) attained by the practice of higher meditation, free from even a shadow of suffering in the accepted sense of the word, states which may be described as unmixed happiness, as well as the state of dhyāna which is free from sensations both pleasant (sukha) and unpleasant (dukkha) and is only pure equanimity and awareness- even these very high spiritual states are included in dukkha. In one of the suttas of the Majjhima- nikāya, (again one of the five original Collections), after praising the spiritual happiness of these dhyānas, the Buddha says that they are 'impermanent, dukkha, and subject to change' (aniccā dukkhā viparināmadhammā). [3] Notice that the word dukkha is explicitly used. It is dukkha, not because there is 'suffering' in the ordinary sense of the word, but because 'whatever is impermanent is dukkha'. (yad aniccam tam dukkham).

佛说世间有苦难,并不是否认人生有乐趣。相反的,他承认居士和比丘都可以有各种物质和精神的乐趣。在巴利经藏中,五部原典之一的《增支部经》,就有一张列举各种快乐的清单。例如:家庭生活之乐、五欲之乐、厌离之乐、染著之乐、色身之乐、心灵之乐等等。﹝注三﹞可是这一切都包含在‘苦’中。甚至由修习高级禅定而得的非常纯净的精神状态,其中了无通常所谓‘苦难’的踪影,可称是无染的乐受的各种禅定境界,以及不苦不乐只有纯粹舍支与一心支的禅定境界,像这种非常高超的精神境界,也都包含在‘苦’中。在《中部经》(也是巴利文经藏中五部原典之一)里有一部经,佛先赞叹禅定之乐,后接著说这些喜乐是无常、苦、变易不居的。﹝注四﹞请注意这里明明白白地标出一个‘苦’字。这‘苦’并不是通常所谓的苦难,而是‘无常即是苦’。

The Buddha was realistic and objective. He says, with regard to life and the enjoyment of sense-pleasures, that one should clearly understand three things: (1) attraction or enjoyment (assāda), (2) evil consequence or danger or unsatisfactoriness (ādinava), and (3) freedom or liberation (nissarana). [4] When you see a pleasant, charming and beautiful person, you like him (or her), you are attracted, you enjoy seeing that person again and again, you derive pleasure and satisfaction from that person. This is enjoyment (assāda). It is a fact of experience. But this enjoyment is not permanent, just as that person and all his (or her) attractions are not permanent either. When the situation changes, when you cannot see that person, when you deprived of this enjoyment, you become sad, you may become unreasonable and unbalanced, you may even behave foolishly. This is the evil, unsatisfactory and dangerous side of the picture (ādinava). This, too, is a fact of experience. Now if you have no attachment to the person, if you are completely detached, that is freedom, liberation (nissarana). These three things are true with regard to all enjoyment in life.

佛是真实而客观的。他说一个人对人生欲乐的享受,有三件事必须了了分明:(一)欲乐的对象与欲乐的享受。(二)欲乐的恶果、危险、以及其它不如意处。(三)从欲乐得解脱。﹝注五﹞当你看见一个愉快迷人而美丽的人儿时,你喜欢他(她),被他(她)所吸引。你乐于一再见到那人,从那人处得到欢乐与满足。这就是欲乐的享受,是经验上的一项事实。但是这种享受不会长久,就和那人以及他(她)所有的吸引力也不长久一样。情况改变时,你不能再见到那人;失去了这份享受,你就变得忧郁,也可能变得不可理喻而失去心智的平衡。你也许会做出傻事来。这就是(欲乐)恶的、不如意与危险的一面;这也是一项经验上的事实。可是如果你对那人不贪著,完全抱一种超然的态度,那就是自在、解脱。一切生命中的享受,都不离这三件事。

From it is evident that it is no question of pessimism or optimism, but that we must take account of the pleasures of life as well as of its pain and sorrows, and also freedom from them, in order to understand life completely and objectively. Only then is true liberation possible. Regarding this question the Buddha says:

从这一点上,可以很明显地看出,这不是一个悲观或乐观的问题。要想完全而客观地去了解人生,不可不计及生活中的乐趣、痛苦忧伤,以及从两者得解脱的三个不同方面。只有这样,才可能得到真正的解脱。关于这个问题,佛说:

'O bhikkhus, if ant recluses or brāhmanas do not understand objectively in this way that the enjoyment of sense-pleasures is enjoyment, that their unsatisfactoriness is unsatisfactoriness, that liberation from them is liberation, then it is not possible that they themselves will certainly understand the desire of sense-pleasures completely, or that they will be able to instruct another person to that end, or that the person following their instruction will completely understand the desire for sense-pleasures. But O bhikkhus, if any recluses or brāhmanas understand objectively in this way that the enjoyment of sense-pleasures is enjoyment, that their unsatisfactoriness is unsatisfactoriness, that liberation from them is liberation, then it is possible that they themselves will certainly understand the desire for sense-pleasures completely, and that they will be able to instruct another person to that end, and that that person following their instruction will completely understand the desire for sense-pleasure.' [5]

‘比丘们啊!任何梵志出家人,如果不能在享受欲乐的时候,以客观的态度,了了分明这是享受;在欲乐的享受不能如意时,客观地了知这是不如意的;在从欲乐得解脱时,客观地了知这是解脱;他们就不可能确实而完全地了解感官享受的欲求。但是,比丘们啊!任何梵志出家人,如果能客观地了知欲乐的享受为享受、它们的不如意为不如意、从欲乐得解脱为解脱,他们就可能确实而完全地了解感官享受的欲求(之究竟)。他们也就可以以此教导旁人,而受教遵行的人,也就能够完全了解感官享受的欲求(之究竟)。’﹝注六﹞

The conception of dukkha may be viewed from three aspects (1) dukkha as ordinary suffering (dukkha-dukkha), (2) dukkha as produced by change (viparināma-dukkha) and (3) dukkha as conditioned states (samkhāra-dukkha). [6]

‘苦’的观念可从三方面去审察:

(一)一般苦难的苦(苦苦)。

(二)由变易而生的苦(坏苦)。

(三)由因缘和合(条件具备)而生起的苦(行苦)。﹝注七﹞

All kinds of suffering in life like birth, old age, sickness, death, association with unpleasant persons and conditions, separation from loved ones and pleasant conditions, not getting what one desires, grief, lamentation, distress-all such forms of physical and mental suffering, which are universally accepted as suffering or pain, are included in dukkha as ordinary suffering (dukkha-dukkha).

人生的各种苦难,如生、老、病、死、冤憎会、爱别离、求不得、忧、悲、哀伤......凡此种种身心苦楚,为世人所公认苦难或痛苦者,都包括在一般苦难的苦(苦苦)中。

A happy feeling, a happy condition in life, is not permanent, not everlasting. It changes sooner or later. When it changes, it produces pain, suffering, unhappiness. This vicissitude is included in dukkha as suffering produced by change (viparināma-dukkha).

生活中快乐的感觉和快乐的境遇,是无常的、不永恒的、迟早要改变的。它改变的时候,就产生了痛苦、苦恼、不乐。这种变迁都包括在变易的苦(坏苦)中。

It is easy to understand the two forms of suffering (dukkha) mentioned above. No one will dispute them. This aspect of the First Noble Truth is more popular known because it is easy to understand. It is common experience in our daily life.

以上所述两种苦并不难了解,也不会有人对此持什么异议。苦谛中这两方面的苦比较为众所熟知,因为它们是我们日常生活中的共同经验,因而容易明白。

But the third form of dukkha as conditioned states (samkhāra-dukkha) is the most important philosophical aspect of the First Noble Truth, and it requires some analytical explanation of what we consider as a 'being', as an 'individual', or as 'I'.

但是第三种由因缘和合生起的苦(行苦),却是第一圣谛中最重要、最具哲理的一面。要了解它,必须先将我们所认为‘众生’、‘个人’及‘我’的观念作一番分析阐释。

What we call a 'being' or an 'individual', or 'I', according to Buddhist philosophy, is only a combination of ever-changing physical and mental forces or energies, which may be divided into five groups or aggregates (paňcakkhandha). The Buddha says: 'In short these five aggregates of attachment are dukkha'. [7] Elsewhere he distinctly defines dukkha as the five aggregates: 'O bhikkhus, what is dukkha? It should be said that it is the five aggregates of attachment'. [8] Here it should be clearly understood that duhhka and five aggregates are not two different things: the five aggregates themselves are dukkha. We will understand this point better when we have some notion of the five aggregates which constitute the so-called 'being'. Now, what are these five?

根据佛教哲学,所谓‘众生’、‘个人’及‘我’,只是经常在变动著的物质与精神力量或能力的综合。这种组合可以分成五类,或称五蕴。佛说:‘简言之,这五类能执著的组合体(五取蕴)就是苦。’﹝注八﹞在别的经中,他更明白地以五取蕴作为苦的界说。他说:‘比丘们啊!什么是苦呢?应该说它就是五种能执著的组合体(五取蕴)。’﹝注九﹞于此,必须要明白了知的就是:苦与五蕴并不是两个不同的东西。五蕴本身即是苦。我们对于构成所谓‘众生’的五蕴,稍为有点概念之后,对于这一点当有更进一步的了解。现在且说这五蕴是那些东西。


The Five Aggregates

五蕴

The first is the Aggregates of Matter (Rūpakkhandha). In this term 'Aggregates of Matter' are included the traditional Four Great Elements (cattāri mahābbūtāni), namely, solidity, fluidity, heat and motion, and also the Derivatives (upādāya- rūpa) of the Four Great Elements. [9] In the term 'Derivatives of Four Great Elements' are included our five material sense-organs, i.e., the faculties of eye, ear, nose, tongue, and body, and their corresponding objects in the external world, i.e., visible form, sound, odour, taste, and tangible things, and also some thoughts or ideas or conceptions which are in the sphere of mind-objects (dharmāyatana). [10] Thus the whole realm of matter, both internal and external, is included in the Aggregate of Matter.

第一是物质的组合之类——色蕴。 在这色蕴之中,包括有传统的四大种性,就是坚性(地)、湿性(水)、暖性(火)与动性(风),以及四大的衍生物。﹝注十﹞这些衍生物包括我们的五种感觉器官(根),也就是眼、耳、鼻、舌、身,以及在外境中与它们相应的对象(尘),也就是色、声、香、味、触等。尚有某种思想、意念或观念为我们精神活动的对象者(法尘)。﹝注十一﹞因此,色蕴包括了整个物质的领域,在内和在外的都算。

The second is the Aggregate of Sensations (Vedanākkhandha). In this group are included all our sensations, pleasant or unpleasant or neutral, experienced through the contact of physical and mental organs with the external world. They are of six kinds: the sensations experienced through the contact of the eye with visible forms, ear with sounds, nose with odour, tongue with taste, body with tangible objects, and mind (which is the sixth faculty in Buddhist Philosophy) with mind-objects or thoughts or idea. [11] All our physical and mental sensations are included in this group.

第二是感觉组合之类——受蕴。 这一蕴包括我们身心器官与外界接触到的所有感觉:愉快的、不愉快的,以及既非愉快又非不愉快——中性——的。这些感觉可分六种:由眼根与色尘相接而生的感觉;耳根与声尘、鼻根与香尘、舌根与味尘、身根与触尘、意根(佛教哲学中的第六识)与法尘(思想与意念)﹝注十二﹞等相接而生的感觉。也就是说,我们身心的一切感受,都包括在此蕴之中。

A word about what is meant by the term “Mind' (manas) in Buddhist philosophy may be useful here. It should clearly be understood that mind is not spirit as opposed to matter. It should always be remembered that Buddhism does not recognize a spirit opposed to matter, as is accepted by most other systems of philosophies and religions. Mind is only a faculty or organ (indriya) like the eye or the ear. It can be controlled and developed like any other faculty, and the Buddha speaks quite often of the value of controlling and disciplining these six faculties. The difference between the eye and the mind as faculties is that the former senses the world of colours and visible forms, while the latter senses the world of ideas and thoughts and mental objects. We experience different fields of the world with different senses. We cannot hear colours, but we can see them. Nor can we see sounds, but we can hear them. Thus with our five physical sense-organs-eye, ear, nose, tongue, body-we experience only the world of visible forms, sound, odours, tastes and tangible objects. But these represent only a part of the world, not the whole. What of ideas and thoughts? They are also a part of the world. But they cannot be sensed, they cannot be conceived by the faulty of the eye, ear, nose, tongue or body. Yet they can be conceived by another faculty, which is mind. Now ideas and thoughts are not independent of the world experienced by these five physical sense faculties. In fact they depend on, and are conditioned by, physical experiences. Hence a person born blind cannot have ideas of colour, except through the analogy of sounds or some other things experienced through his other faculties. Ideas and thoughts which form a part of the world are thus produced and conditioned by physical experiences and are conceived by the mind. Hence mind (manas) is considered a sense faculty or organ (indriya), like the eye or the ear.

在这里,对于佛教哲学中‘意’之一字的涵义,似有略作解释的必要。‘意’并不是与物质相对的精神,这一点务必要弄清楚。佛教不承认有与物质相对立的精神,像别的宗教与哲学体系中所承认者。这一点尤须牢记在心。‘意’只不过是一个器官或官能,与眼耳一般。它像别的官能一样,可以予以控制及发展。佛就常常控制及锻炼六种官能的价值。眼的官能与‘意’的官能之不同处,在于前者所感觉的是颜色及形态的世界,而后者所感觉的则是各种意象、思想等心灵活动的对象(心所有法)的世界。我们以不同感官,感受世间不同领域的事物。我们不能听见但是可以看得见颜色。我们也不能看见但是可以听见声音。以我们的五官——眼、耳、鼻、舌、身,我们只能经验有色、有声、有香、有味和可以捉摸的世界。但这些仅是世界的一部份而不是全体。意念和思想怎么样呢?它们也是世界的一部份,但是它们不能用眼、耳、鼻、舌、身等官能来察觉,只能用另一种官能——‘意根’来体会。意念与思想,并不是与其它五种肉体官能所能经验到的世界无关。事实上,它们是建立于色身经验之上,而依之为移转的。因此,生来盲目的人,不可能有色彩的意念,仅能靠声音或其它感官所经验到的事物作譬,而得到某种程度的色的概念。所以,构成一部份世界的意念和思想,虽在意根内形成,它们却是由色身的经验所产生,而受其限制。因此,意根也被认为是一个感觉的器官或官能,和眼根、耳根一样。

The third is the Aggregate of Perceptions (Saňňākkhandha). Like sensations, perceptions also are of six kinds, in relation to six internal faculties and the corresponding six external objects. Like sensations, they are produced through the contact of our six faculties with the external world. It is the perceptions that recognize objects whether physical or mental. [12]

第三是识别组合之类——想蕴。 与受蕴一样,想蕴也有六种,与在内的六根和在外的六尘相关联。它们也和受蕴一样,是由六根与外境相接而生起的。它的功能就在认识与辨别各种身心活动的对象。﹝注十三﹞

The fourth is the Aggregate of Mental Formations [13] (Samkhārakkhandha). In this group are included all volitional activities both good and bad. What is generally known as karma (or kamma) comes under this group. The Buddha's own definition of karma should be remembered here: 'O bhikkhus, it is volition (cetanā) that I call karma. Having willed, one acts through body, speech and mind. [14] Volition is 'mental construction, mental activity. Its function is to direct the mind in the sphere of good, bad or neutral activities.' [15] Just like sensations and perceptions, volition is of six kinds, connected with the six internal faculties and the corresponding six objects (both physical and mental) in the external world. [16] Sensations and perceptions are not volitional actions. They do not produce karmic effects. It is only volitional actions- such as attention (manasikāra), will (chanda), determination (adhimokkha), confidence (saddhā), concentrate (samādhi), wisdom (paňňā), energy (viriya), desire (rāga), repugnance or hate (patigha, Ignorance (avijjā), conceit (māna), idea of self (sakkāya-ditthi) etc. – that can produce karmic effects. There are 52 such mental activities which constitute the Aggregate of Mental Formations.

第四是心所组合之类——行蕴。﹝注十四﹞ 这一类包括了所有善的与恶的意志活动。一般所谓的‘业’,也属于这一蕴。佛亲自为业所立的界说,应该牢记不忘:‘比丘们啊!我叫作业的就是意志(思)。先有了决意,才经由身、口、意发为行动。’﹝注十五﹞思(Volition)就是‘心的造作、心志的活动。它的功能,就是指挥心智以从事善、恶、无记等活动’。﹝注十六﹞和受、想二蕴一样,行蕴也有六种,内与六根、外与六尘相联接。﹝注十七﹞可是,受与想不是意志的活动,不能产生业果。只有意志的活动如作意、欲、胜解、信、定、慧、精进、贪、嗔、无明、慢、身见等,才能产生业果。在行蕴中,像这样的心志活动(心所有法),共有五十二种。

The fifth is the Aggregate of Consciousness (Viňňānakkhandha). [17] Consciousness is a reaction or response which has one of the six faculties (eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind) as its basis, and one of the six corresponding external phenomena (visible form, sound, odour, taste, tangible things and mind-objects, i.e., an idea or thought) as its objects. For instance, visual consciousness (cakkhu-viňňāna) has the eye as its basis and a visible form as its object. Mental consciousness (mano- viňňāna) has the mind (manas) as its basis and a mental object, i.e., an idea or thought (dhamma) as its objects. So consciousness is connected with other faculties. Thus, like sensation, perception and volition, consciousness also is of six kinds, in relation to six internal faculties and corresponding six external objects. [18]

第五是知觉组合之类——识蕴。﹝注十八﹞ 知觉(识)是以六根(眼、耳、鼻、舌、身、意)之一为基本,以及和它相应的六尘(色、声、香、味、触、法)之一为对象而生的反应。例如,眼识即以眼根为基本,而以可见的形态为对象而生起。意识(末那)是以意根为基本,而以心所有法(即意念、思想等)为对象而生起。所以,识也与其它官能有关联。和受、想、行三蕴一样,识也分六种,与内六根和外六尘相攸关。﹝注十九﹞

It should be clearly understood that consciousness does not regconize an object. It is only a sort of awareness-awareness of the presence of an object. When the eye comes in contact with a colour, for instance blue, visual consciousness arises which simply is a awareness of the presence of a colour; but it does not recognize that it is blue. There is no recognition at this stage. It is perception (the third Aggregate discussed above) that recognizes that it is blue. The term “visual consciousness' is a philosophical expression denoting the same idea as is conveyed by the ordinary word 'seeing'. Seeing does not mean recognizing. So are the other forms of consciousness.

识并不能辨认事物,这点必须明白了解。它只是一种知觉,对于某一事物的存在的察觉。眼睛接触一种颜色,比方说蓝色的时候,眼识即行生起。但它只是察觉到有一种颜色存在,并不认识它是蓝色。﹝注二十﹞在这阶段,尚没有认识。认出它是蓝色的,是想蕴(前面讨论过的第三蕴)。‘眼识’是一个哲学名词。它所表诠的意念,与普通‘看’字所表达的一样。看的意思,并不就是认识。(译者按:所谓视而不见也)。其它各识,亦复如是。

It must be repeated here that according to Buddhist philosophy there is no permanent, unchanging spirit which can be considered 'Self', or 'Soul', or 'Ego', as apposed to matter, and that consciousness (viňňāna) should not be taken as 'spirit' in opposition to matter. This point has to be particularly emphasized, because a wrong notion consciousness is a sort of Self or Soul that continues as a permanent substance through life, has persisted from the earliest time to the present day.

在这里必须重覆说明的就是:根据佛教哲学,世间并无永恒不变而与物质对立的精神,可以被视为‘自我’、‘灵魂’或‘个我’者。‘识’也不可以视之为与物质对立的精神。这一点必须特别强调,因为有一种错误的观念,以为‘识’是一种‘自我’或‘灵魂’,在一人一生中为持续不变的实质。这种观念,自最早的时候起直到如今,始终为人所固执不舍。

One of the Buddha's own disciples, Sāti by name, held that the Master taught: 'It is the same consciousness that transmigrates and wanders about.' The Buddha asked him what he meant by 'consciousness'. Sāti reply is classical: 'It is that which expresses, which feels, which experiences the results of good and bad deeds here and there'.

'To whomever, you stupid one', remonstrated the Master, 'have you heard me expounding the doctrines in this manner? Haven't I in many ways explained consciousness as arising out of conditions: that there is n arising of consciousness without conditions'. Then the Buddha went on to explain consciousness in detail: 'Consciousness is named according to whatever condition through which it arises: on account of the eye and visible forms arises a consciousness, and it is called visual consciousness; on account of the ear and sounds arises a consciousness, and it is called auditory consciousness; on account of the nose and odours arises consciousness, and it is called olfactory consciousness; on account of the tongue and tastes arises a consciousness, and it is called gustatory consciousness; on account of the body and tangible objects arises a consciousness, and it is called tactile consciousness; on account of the mind and mind-objects (ideas and thoughts) arises a consciousness, and it is called mental consciousness.'

佛的弟子中有一个叫做嗏帝的,声称世尊曾教他:‘轮转飘泊的,乃是同一不变的识。’佛问他,他所谓的识是指什么?嗏帝给佛的是一个典型的答案:‘它就是那个能够表现、能够感觉,而且能够随处承受一切善恶业报的东西。’世尊就训诫他说:‘你这愚蠢的人啊!你听见过我对谁这样说法呀?我没有用种种方法解释识蕴是由因缘和合而生,如无因缘和合则不能生起吗?’接著佛就详细为他解释识蕴:‘识是从使它生起的因缘得名。因眼根与色尘相接而生起的识,就叫做眼识;因耳根与声尘相接而生的识,就叫做耳识;因鼻根与香尘相接而生起的识,就叫做鼻识;因舌根与味尘相接而生起的识,就叫做味识;因身根与触尘相接而生起的识,就叫做身识;因意根与法尘(意念与思想)相接而生起的识,就叫做意识。’

Then the Buddha explained it further by an illustration: A fire is named according to the material on account of which it burns. A fire may burn on account of wood, add it is called wood-fire. It may burn on account of straw, and then it is called straw-fire. So consciousness is named account to the condition through which it arises. [19]

接著,佛更进一步以譬喻作解释:‘火每从所烧的燃料得名,因木柴而燃烧的火叫做柴火,因稻草而燃烧的火叫做稻草火。所以,识也是从使它生起的因缘得名。’﹝注二十一﹞

Dwelling on this point, Buddhaghosa, the great commentator, explain: '… a fire burns on account of wood burns only when there is a supply, but dies down in that very place when it (the supply) is no longer there, because then the condition has changed, but (the fire) does not cross over to splinters, etc., and become a splinter-fire and so on; even so the consciousness that arise on account of the eye and visible forms arises in that gate of sense organ (i.e., in the eye), only where there is the condition of the eye, visible forms, light and attentions, but ceases then and there when it (the condition) is no more there, because then the condition has changed, but (the consciousness) does not cross over to the ear, etc, and become auditory consciousness and so on …' [20]

大注疏家觉音在详论这一点时,解释道:‘因木柴燃烧的火,只有在木材供应不断时才燃烧。供应断绝时,即就地熄灭,因为造成燃烧的条件(因缘)改变了。但是火并不跳到木屑等上去,而变成木屑火等。同样的,因眼根与色尘相接而生起的眼识,只生在眼根门头; 而且只在眼根、色尘、光与作意(注意)四缘具备的时候才生起。一旦因缘消散,其识即时就地止息,因为条件改变了。但是这识并不跳到耳根等处去,而变成耳识等等······。’﹝注二十二﹞

The Buddha declared in unequivocal terms that consciousness depends on matter, sensation, perception and mental formations and that it cannot exist independently of them. He says:

佛曾经毫不含糊地宣称识蕴是依色、受、想、行四蕴而生起,不能离此四蕴而独存。他说:

'Consciousness may exist having matter as its means (rūpupāyam), matter as its object (rūpārammanani), matter as its support (rūpa-patittham), and seeking delight it may grow, increase and develop; or consciousness may exist having sensation as its means… or perception as its means… or mental as its means, mental formations as its objects, mental formations as its support, and seeking delight it may grow, increase and develop.

‘识可以以色为方便、以色为对象、以色为给养而存在,并且为乐此不疲故,它可以生长、增进、发展。识也可以以受为方便······而存在,以想为方便······而存在;以行为方便、以行为对象、以行为给养而存在,并且为乐此不疲故,它可以生长、增进、发展。

'Were a man to say: I shall show the coming, the going, the passing away, the arising, the growth, the increase or the development of consciousness apart from matter, sensation, perception and mental formations, he would be speaking of something that does not exist.' [21]

‘如有人说:我可以显示识的来、去、消逝、生起、成长、增进、发展,而与色、受、想、行无关,那他所说的东西根本就不存在。’﹝注二十三﹞

Very brief these are the five Aggregates. What we call a 'being', or an 'individual', or, 'I', is only a convenient name or a label given to the combination of these five groups. They are all impermanent, all constantly changing. 'Whatever is impermanent is dukkha' (Yad aniccam tam dukkham). This is true meaning of the Buddha's words: 'In brief the five Aggregates of Attachment are dukkha'. They are not the same for two consecutive moments. Here A is not equal to A. They are in a flux of momentary arising and disappearing.

很简单地说,这些就是五蕴。我们叫做‘众生’、‘个人’或‘我’的,只是为这五蕴的综合体所取的一个方便的名字或标签而已。这五蕴都是无常的、不停地变迁著的。‘凡是无常的,即是苦。’这就是佛说:‘简单地说,五取蕴即是苦’的真实义蕴。从一刹那到相接的另一刹那,它们(五蕴综合体的成份——译者注)就不再相同。在这种关系里,甲并不等于甲。它们是一股刹那的生灭之流。

'O Brāhmana, it is just like a mountain river, flowing far and swift, taking everything along with it; there is no matter, no instant no second when it stops flowing, but it goes on flowing and continuing. So Brāhmana, is human life, like a mountain river.' [22]

‘梵志们啊!就好像一道山洪,源远流长而波涛湍急,把一切都冲走。它没有一刻一分一秒的停留,只是不断地流、流、流。梵志们啊!人生就像这山洪一般。’﹝注二十四﹞

As the Buddha told Ratthapāla: 'The world is in continuous flux and is impermanent.'

佛这样地告诉罗吒波罗:‘世间迁流不息,无有恒常。’

One thing disappears, conditioning the appearance of the next in a series of cause and effect. There is no unchanging substance in them. There is nothing behind them that can be called a permanent Self (Ātman), individuality, or anything that can in reality be called 'I'. Every one will agree that neither matter, nor sensation, nor perception, nor any one of those mental activities, nor consciousness can really be called 'I'. [23] But when these five physical and mental aggregates which are interdependent are working together in combination as a physio-psychological machine, [24] we get the idea of 'I'. But this is only a false idea, a mental formation, which is nothing but one of those 52 mental formations of the fourth Aggregate which we have just discussed, namely, it is the idea of self (sakkāya-ditthi).

在一连串的因果关系中,一件事物的消逝,就构成另一件事物生起的条件。其中,并没有不变的实体。它们的幕后,并没有可以叫做‘永恒的自我(神我)’、‘个性’或真正可以叫做‘我’的东西。大家都会同意,无论是色蕴、受蕴、想蕴、行蕴或识蕴中任何一法,都不能被认为是真正的‘我’。﹝注二十五﹞但是这五种精神与肉体的‘蕴’,本来是相互依存的。在它们联合活动的时候,就成为一架身心合一的机器﹝注二十六﹞,因而产生了‘我’的意念。但这是一个虚妄的意念,只是一种心所有法,也就是前文刚谈过的五十二种心所法之一的身见——萨迦耶见。

These five Aggregate together, which we popularly call a 'being' are dukkha itself (samkhāra-dukkha). There is no other 'being' or 'I', standing behind these five aggregates, who experiences dukkha. As Buddhaghosa says:

这五蕴和合之身,通俗称为‘众生’之物,就是‘苦’的本身。在五蕴的幕后,再没有其它的‘众生’和‘我’在那里承当这‘苦’。就如觉音所说的:

'Mere suffering exists, but no suffering is found;
The deeds are, but no doer is found.' [25]

‘仅有苦难存在,却找不到受苦者。

事迹是有的,却找不到行事之人。’﹝注二十七﹞

There is no unmoving mover behind the movement. It is only movement. It is not correct to say that life is moving, but life is movement itself. Life and movement are not two different things. In other words, there is no thinker behind the thought. Thought itself is the thinker. If you move the thought, there is no thinker to be found. Here we cannot fail to notice how this Buddhist view is diametrically opposed to the Cartesian cogito ergo sum: 'I think, therefore I am.'

在活动的后面,并没有不动的推动者,只有活动本身。所以,讲‘生命是活动的’这句话是不对的。应当说生命就是活动本身。生命与活动并不是两样不同的东西。推言之,思想的幕也没有思想者。思想本身就是思想者。除掉了思想,就再找不到思想者。于此,我们不能不注意到,佛教的这一观点,与笛卡儿的‘我思故我在’是何其相反。

Now a question may be raised whether life has a beginning. According to the Buddha's teaching the beginning of the life-stream of living beings is unthinkable. The believer in the creation of life by God may be astonished at this reply. But if you were to ask him 'What is the beginning of God?' he would answer without hesitation 'God has no beginning', and he is not astonished at his own reply. The Buddha says: 'O bhikkhus, this cycle of continuity (samsāra) is without a visible end, and the first beginning of beings wandering and running round, enveloped in ignorance (avijjā) and bound down by the fetters of thirst (desire, tamhā) is not to be perceived.' [26] And further, referring to ignorance which is the main cause if the continuity of life the Buddha states: 'The first beginning of ignorance (avijjā) is not to be perceived in such a way as to postulate that there was no ignorance beyond a certain points.' [27] Thus it is not possible to say that there was no life beyond a certain definite point.

现在可以提出‘生命有没有起源’的问题了。根据佛的教旨,生命之流的起源,是不可想像的。相信上帝创造生命的人,也许会对这答案感到诧异。但是,如果你问他:‘什么是上帝的起源?’他会毫不犹豫地答覆:‘上帝没有起源。’而且不会对他自己的答案感觉奇怪。佛说:‘比丘们啊!这相续不断的轮回,没有可见的终点。也不见有众生受无明所蒙蔽、被贪爱的桎梏所羁绊、在生死中飘泊轮转的开端。’﹝注二十八﹞谈到生死相续的主因——无明的时候,佛说:‘无明的起源不可见,不可假定在某一点之前没有无明。’﹝注二十九﹞因此,也不可能说在某一个确定的起点之前,世间没有生命。

This in short is the meaning of the Noble Truth of Dukkha. It is extremely important to understand this First Noble Truth clearly because, as the Buddha says, 'he who sees dukkha sees also the arising of dukkha, sees also the cessation of dukkha, and sees also the path leading to the cessation of dukkha.' [28]

简短地说,这就是苦的圣谛意义。明白了解这第一圣谛,是极为重要的。因为佛说:‘凡是真正见到苦的,也必见到苦的生起,也必见到苦的止息,也必见到导致苦的止息之道。’﹝注三十﹞

This does not at all make the life of a Buddhist melancholy or sorrowful, as some people wrongly imagine. On the contrary, a true Buddhist is the happiest of beings. He has no fears or anxieties. He is always calm and serene, and cannot be upset or dismayed by changes or calamities, because he sees things as they are. The Buddha was never melancholy or gloomy. He was described by his contemporaries as 'ever-smiling' (mihitapubbamgama). In Buddhist painting and sculpture the Buddha is always represented with a countenance happy, serene, contented and compassionate. Never a trace of suffering or agony or pain is to be seen. [29] Buddhist art and architecture, Buddhist temples never give the impression of gloom or sorrow, but produce an atmosphere of calm and serene joy.

有些人以为这将使得佛教徒的生活忧郁而悲哀。这是错误的想像。其实丝毫不然。相反的,真正的佛教徒,是个最开心不过的人。他既无畏怖,也没有烦愁。他是宁静安详,不为灾变所恼乱沮丧,因为他能如实洞见一切事物。从不抑郁不乐。与佛同时的人,将他描述为‘经常微笑著。’在佛教的绘画与塑像里,佛的容颜,永远是快乐、宁静、满足而慈悲的,决看不到有一丝受难或痛苦的痕迹。﹝注三十一﹞佛教艺术和建筑,佛教的寺院,从来不曾予人以阴森苦恼的印象,只有产生宁静安详的喜悦气氛。

Although there is suffering in life, a Buddhist should not be gloomy over it, should not be angry or impatient at it. One of the principal evils in life, according to Buddhism, is 'repugnance' or hatred. Repugnance (pratigha) is explained as 'ill-will with regard to living beings, with regard to suffering and with regard to things pertaining to suffering. Its function is to produce a basis for unhappy states and bad conduct.' [30] Thus it is wrong to be impatient at suffering. Being impatient or angry at suffering does not remove it. On the contrary, it adds a little more to one's trouble, and aggravates and exacerbates a situation already disagreeable. What is necessary is not anger or impatience, but the understanding of the question of suffering, how it comes about, and how to get rid of it, and then to work accordingly with patience, intelligence, determination and energy.

虽然世间有苦难,佛教徒却不该因之而郁郁寡欢,也不应为它生嗔而失去耐性。照佛教的说法,嗔或恨是人生首恶之一。嗔是‘对众生、苦难或与苦难有关的事物起不善欲。’它的功能,是为不快的心境及不良的行为奠下基础。﹝注三十二﹞因此,不能忍受苦难是错的。对苦难不耐烦或生恨,并不能蠲除苦难。反之,它只有更替你增加困扰,而使得不顺利的逆境更趋恶化与可恼。对苦难问题必须要有了解,不该对它愤怒不耐。要明白它如何生起?如何消除?然后以坚忍、睿智、决心与精进依法实行,以袪除它。

There are two ancient Buddhist texts called the Therigāthā which are full of the joyful utterances of the Buddha's disciples, both male and female, who found peace and happiness in life through his teaching. The king of Kosala once told the Buddha that unlike many a disciple of other religious systems who looked haggard, coarse, pale, emaciated and unprepossessing, his disciples were 'joyful and elated (hattha-pahattha), jubilant and exultant (udaggudagga), enjoying the spiritual life (abhiratarūpa), with faculties pleased (pinitindriya), free from anxiety (appossukka) serene (pannaloma), peaceful (paradavutta) and living with a gazelle's mind (migabhūtena cetasā), i.e., light-hearted.' The king added that he believed that this healthy disposition was due to the fact that 'these venerable ones had certainly realized the great and full significance of the Blessed One's teaching.' [31]

有两部古老的佛典叫做《长老歌》与《长老尼歌》,其中充满了男女佛弟子的快乐心声;他们在佛的教诫中,找到了人生的平安与快乐。憍萨罗国的国王,有一次告诉佛说,佛的弟子们全不像其它宗教的信徒那样形容枯槁、粗劣苍白、消瘦孱弱、神情猥琐。佛的弟子们‘欢欣鼓舞、意志昂扬、诸根怡悦、无所忧怖、宁静和平、心情愉快一如瞪羚,享受著精神生活的快乐。’国王又说,他相信这种健全的气质是因为‘这些可敬的人,一定都已亲身证道世尊所说法的重大而圆满的意义。’﹝注三十三﹞

Buddhism is quite opposed to be melancholic, sorrowful, penitent and gloomy attitude of mind which is considered a hindrance to the realization of Truth. On the other hand, it is interesting to remember here that joy (piti) is one of the seven be cultivated for the realization of Nirvānā. [32]

佛教最反对愁惨、苦恼、悔罪、郁闷等心理状态,认为这些都是体证真理的障碍。在另一方面,尤须记得‘喜’是七觉支之一,为证见涅槃所必须培养的一种主要德性。﹝注三十四﹞

[1] Dhammacakkappavattana-sutta 'Setting in Motion the Wheel of Truth'. Mhvg. (Alutgama, 1922), p. 9 ff; S V (PTS). P. 420 ff.

[2] A (Colombo, 1929), p. 49

[3] Mahãdukkhakkhandha-sutta, M I (PTS), p. 90.

[4] M I (PTS), p. 85 ff; S III (PTS), p. 27 ff.

[5] M I (PTS), p. 87.

[6] Vism (PTS), P. 499; Abhisamuc, p. 38.

[7] Samkhittena pancupādānakkhandhā dukkhā. S V (PTS), p. 421

[8] S III (PTS), p. 158

[9] S III (PTS),p. 59

[10] Abhisamuc, p. 4. Vibh.p.72. Hhs. p. 133§594

[11] S III (PTS), p. 59.

[12] S III (PTS), p.60

[13] Mental Formations' is the term now generally used to represent the wide meaning of the word samkhāra in the list of Five Aggregates. Samkhāra in other contexts may mean anything conditioned, anything in the word, in which sense all the Five Aggregates are samkhāra.

[14] A (Colombo, 1929), p. 590- Cetanā'ham bhikkhave kammam vadāmi. Cetayitvā kammam karoti kāyena vācā manasā.

[15] Abhisamuc, p.6.

[16] S III (PTS), p.60.

[17] According to Mahāyāna Buddhist philosophy the Aggregate of Consciousness has three aspects: citta, manas and vijňāna, and the Ālaya- vijňāna (popularly translated as 'Store-Consciousness') finds its place in this Aggregate. A detailed and comparative study of this subject will be found in a forthcoming work on Buddhist philosophy by the present writer.

[18] S III (PTS), p.61

[19] Mahātanhāsamkhaya-sutta, M I (PTS), p. 256 ff.

[20] MA II (PTS), pp. 306-307

[21] S III (PTS), p. 58.

[22] A (colomo, 1929), p. 700. These words are attributed by the Buddha to a Teacher (Satthā) named Araka who was free from desires and who lived in the dim past. It is interesting to remember here the doctrine of Heraclitus (about 500 B.C) that everything is in a state of flux, and his famous statement: 'You cannot step twice onto the same river, for fresh waters are ever flowing in upon you.'

[23] The doctrine of Anatta 'No-Self' will be discussed in Chapter VI.

[24] In fact Buddhaghosa compares a 'being' to a wooden mechanism (dāruyanta). Vism. (PTS), pp. 594-595

[25] Vism. (PTS), p.513

[26] S II (PTS), pp. 178-179; III pp.149, 151

[27] A V (PTS), p. 113

[28] S V (PTS), p. 437. In fact the Buddha says that he who sees any one of the Four Noble Truths sees the other three as well. These Four Noble Truths are interconnected.

[29] There is a statue from Gandhara, and also one from Fou-Kien, China, depicting Gotama as an ascetic, emaciated, with all his ribs showing. But this was before his Enlightenment, when he was submitting himself to the rigorous ascetic practices which he condemned after he became Buddha.

[30] Abhisamuc, p. 7.

[31] M II (PTS), p. 121

[32] For these Seven Factors of Enlightenment see Chapter on Meditation, p. 75.

注释:

一:见一九二二年阿陆葛马(Alutgama)版律藏《大品转*轮经》第九页以次各页;巴利文学会版《杂部经》第五集第四二零页以次各页。

二:此处巴利原文Dukkha一字在英文原著并未译成英文,理由见下文。

三:见一九二九年哥仑坡版《增支部经》第四十九页。

四:见巴利文学会版《中部经》第五集第九十页大涅槃经。

五:见巴利文学会版《中部经》第一集第八十五页以次各页及同版《杂部经》第三集第廿七页以次各页。

六:见巴利文学会版《中部经》第一集第八十七页。

七:见巴利文学会版《清净道论》第四九九页及《阿毗达摩集论》(一九五零年山提尼克坦版)第三十八页。

八:见巴利文学会版《杂部经》第五集第四二一页。

九:见巴利文学会版《杂部经》第三集第一五八页。

十:见同书第三集第五十九页。

十一:见《阿毗达摩集论》第四页。

十二:见巴利文学会版《杂部经》第三集第五十九页。

十三:见巴利文学会版《杂部经》第三集第六十页。﹝想蕴(Sanjna, Pali Sanna)不仅是perception而且是conception概念及意念,所以不能说只有六种,著者太著重perception之义,故有此曲解,本人殊不同意。编者张澄基识﹞﹞又:《阿毗达摩集论》,无著造,大正藏一六零五,六六四页及安慧造,大正藏一六零六,六九五页,皆由六根、六尘中说明想蕴并不是只限于此六种,想蕴就是思想及概念。张澄基识。

十四:‘心所’一词现常用以代表五蕴中意义甚广的‘行’字。‘行’字在其它行文中之意义,几可代表任何有为法,任何世间之物,乃至五蕴,无不是‘行’。

十五:见一九二九年哥仑坡版《增支部经》第五九零页。

十六:见《阿毗达摩集论》第六页。

十七:见巴利文学会版《杂部经》第三集第六十页。(此处著者亦犯与前面一般的错误,见注十三,编者张澄基识。)

十八:根据大乘佛教哲学,识蕴分心、意、识三义。阿赖耶识(通常译作藏识)即在此蕴中。本书著者现正从事写作一部佛教哲学之专著,不久即将出版。其中对此课题将有详尽之比较研究。

十九:见巴利文学会版《杂部经》第三集第六十一页。

二十:如果眼识只察觉到颜色,而不知是蓝的,那么此处所谓的颜色究竟是什么意义呢?没有红、黄、蓝······的颜色,究竟是什么颜色呢?张澄基识。

二十一:见巴利文学会版《中部经》第一集第二五六页起 Mahatanhasamkhaya Sutta(译者注:约相当于汉译《中阿含》二零一嗏帝经。)

二十二:见巴利文学会版《中部经》觉音疏第二集第三零六至三零七页。

二十三:见巴利文学会版《杂部经》第三集第五十八页。

二十四:见一九二九哥仑坡版《增支部经》第七零零页。佛称此语乃他多生以前的一位师尊叫做阿逻伽的无欲仙人所说。尚忆西元前五世纪顷之希腊哲人赫拉克利脱氏Heraclitus也曾创一切皆迁流不息之说。他的名言是:‘你不可能两次伸足入同一河流,因为新的水在不断流向你处。’

二十五:无我的教义在第六章内再行详论。

二十六:事实上,觉音曾将‘生灵’比拟为一木制机器。见巴利文学会版《清净道论》第五九四至五九五页。

二十七:见巴利文学会版《清净道论》第五一三页。

二十八:见巴利文学会版《杂部经》第三集一七八页至一七九页,及一四九页至一五一页。

二十九:见同版《增支部经》第五集第一一三页。

三十:见同版《杂部经》第五集第四三七页。事实上,佛说在任何人如见到四圣谛中任何一谛,即见余谛。四圣谛是互相关连的。

三十一:犍陀罗国及中国之福建两地,各有佛修苦行之像,形容枯槁,胁骨尽露。但此为佛得道前厉修苦行之像。佛得道后,即严斥此种修持为非法。

三十二:见《阿毗达摩集论》第七页。三十三:见巴利文学会版《中部经》第二集第一二一页。

三十三:关于七觉支请参阅‘修习:心智的培育’章。


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上一篇:佛陀的启示 第三章 第二圣谛:集谛——苦之生起 Chapter III. The Second Noble Truth - Samudaya: The Arising of Dukkha
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 佛陀的启示 第一章 佛教的宗教态度 Chapter I. The B.. 佛陀的启示 第三章 第二圣谛:集谛——苦之生起 Chapter II..
 佛陀的启示 第四章 第三圣谛:灭谛——苦的止息 Chapter IV.. 佛陀的启示 第五章 第四圣谛:道谛 Chapter V. The F..
 佛陀的启示 第六章 无我论 Chapter VI. The Doct.. 佛陀的启示 第七章 修习:心智的培育 Chapter VII. Me..
 佛陀的启示 第八章 佛的教诫与今日世界 Chapter VIII. .. What Buddha Taught(佛陀的启示)
 佛陀的启示 第一章 佛教的宗教态度 佛陀的启示 第二章 四圣谛
 佛陀的启示 第三章 第二圣谛:集谛 ── 苦之生起 佛陀的启示 第四章 第三圣谛:灭谛 ── 苦的止息
 佛陀的启示 第五章 第四圣谛:道谛 佛陀的启示 第六章 无我论
 佛陀的启示 第七章 修习:心智的培育 佛陀的启示 第八章 佛的教诫与今日世界
 佛陀的启示 附录--本书常见佛学名词浅释 佛陀的启示 本书内容更正启事
 佛陀的启示 (顾法严居士译)

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