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佛陀的启示 第三章 第二圣谛:集谛——苦之生起 Chapter III. The Second Noble Truth - Samudaya: The Arising of Dukkha
 
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背景色

Chapter III. The Second Noble Truth
Samudaya: The Arising of Dukkha

第三章  第二圣谛:集谛——苦之生起

The Second Noble Truth is that of the arising or origin of dukkha (Dukkhasamudaya-ariyasacca). The most popular and well-known definition of the Second Truth as found in innumerable places in the original texts runs as follows:

第二圣谛——集谛,就是关于苦之生起或根源的真谛。这一圣谛最通俗而为人所熟知的界说,在巴利文原典中许多地方都可见到。

'It is this “thirst” (craving, tanhā) which produces re-existence and re-becoming (ponobhavikā), and which is bound up with passionate greed (nandirāgasahagatā), and which finds fresh delight now here and now there (tatratatrābhinandini), namely, (1) thirst for sense- pleasures (kāma-tanhā), (2) thirst for existence and becoming (bhava-tanhā) and (3) thirst for non-existence (self-annihilation, vibhava-tanhā). [1]

‘苦的根源,就是“渴(爱)”。它造成“来世”与“后有”;与强烈的贪欲相缠结,随地随处拾取新欢。这“渴(爱)”有三:(一)感官享受的渴求(欲爱);(二)生与存的渴求(有爱);(三)不再存在的渴求(无有爱)。’﹝注一﹞

In this 'thirst', desire, greed, craving, manifesting itself in various ways, that gives rise to all forms of suffering and the continuity of beings. But it should not be taken as the first cause, for there is no first cause possible as, according to Buddhism, everything is relative and inter-dependent. Even this 'thirst', tanhā, which is considered as the cause or origin of dukkha, depends for its arising (samudaya) on something else, which is sensation (vedanā)[2] , and sensation arises depending on contact (phassa), and so on and so forth on the circle which is known as Conditioned Genesis (Paticca-samuppāda), which we will discuss later. [3]

这以各种形式表现的‘渴求’、欲望、贪婪、爱著,就是生起一切痛苦及使得生死相续不断的根源。但却不能将它视为最初因,因为按佛法说,一切都是相对的、相互依存的。这苦之根源的渴(爱),也是依其他的条件而生起的。这条件就是受﹝注二﹞,而受又依触而生起,辗转相依,即构成所谓十二缘起。这在下文再为详论。

So tanhā, 'thirst', is not the first or the only cause of the arising of dukkha. But it is the most palpable and the 'all-pervading thing'. [4] Hence in certain places of the original Pali texts themselves the definition of samudaya or the origin of dukkha includes other defilements and impurities (kilesā, sāsavā dhammā), in addition to tanhā 'thirst' which is always given the first place. [5] Within the necessarily limited space of our discussion, it will be sufficient if we remember that this 'thirst' has as its centre the false idea of self arising out of ignorance.

由上可知,‘渴(爱)’并不是苦之生起的最初或唯一的原因,而是最明显、最直接的原因,也是最主要与最普遍的事实。﹝注三﹞因此,在巴利文原典的某些地方,集谛的定义中,除了以渴(爱)为主要原因以外,还包括了其他的烦恼不净法。﹝注四﹞本文篇幅有限,无法详论,只请牢记一点:这渴(爱)的核心,就是从无明生起的虚妄我见。

Here the term 'thirst' includes not only desire for, and attachment to, sense-pleasures, wealth and power, but also desire for, and attachment to, idea and ideals, views, opinions, theories, conceptions and beliefs (dhamma-tanhā). [6] According to the Buddha's analysis, all the troubles and strife in the world, from little personal quarrels in families to great wars between nations and countries, arise out of this selfish 'thirst'. From this point of view, all economic, political and social problems are rooted in this selfish 'thirst'. [7] Great statesmen who try to settle international disputes and talk of war and peace only in economic and political terms touch the superficialities, and never go deep into the real root of the problem. As the Buddha told Rattpāla: 'The world lacks and hankers, and is enslaved to “thirst” (tanhādāso).'

‘渴(爱)’一词的意义,不仅是对欲乐、财富、权势的贪求与执著,也包括对意念、理想、观点、意见、理论、概念、信仰等的贪求与执著。﹝注五﹞根据佛的分析,世间一切困扰纷争,小至家庭个人之间的口角,大至国与国间的战争,无不由于这自私的‘渴(爱)’所引起的。﹝注六﹞从这一观点看,一切经济、政治、与社会的根本,都在这自私的渴爱。大政治家们想仅从经济与政治方面去解决国际纠纷,讨论战争与和平,只触及问题的表面,而不能深入到根本症结之所在。佛就曾告诉罗吒波罗:‘世人常感不足,梦寐以求,乃成为“渴(爱)”的奴隶。’

Every one will admit that all the evils in the world are produced by selfish desire. This is not difficult to understand. But now this desire, 'thirst', can produce re-existence and re-becoming (ponobhavikā) is a problem not so easy to grasp. It is here that we have to discuss the deeper philosophical side of the Second Noble Truth corresponding to the philosophical side of the First Noble Truth. Here we must have some idea about the theory of karma and rebirth.

每一个人都会承认,世间一切恶事都从自私欲生。这并不难懂。但是这‘渴(爱)’如何能产生来世与后有,就不是那末容易把握的一个问题了。在这里,我们必须探讨与第一圣谛的哲理相应的第二圣谛中的深奥哲理。我们必须对业与再生的理论有若干的概念。

There are four Nutriments (āhāra) in the sense of 'cause' or 'condition' necessary for the existence and continuity of beings” (1) ordinary material food (kabalinkārāhāra), (2) contact of our sense-organs (including mind) with the external world (phassāhāra), (3) consciousness (viňňānāhara) and (4) mental volition or will (manosaňcetanāhāra). [8]

众生所赖以继续生存的要件‘因、缘’共有四种,叫做四食:(一)普通物质的食粮(段食);(二)感官(包括意根)与外境的接触(触食);(三)知觉(识食);(四)思或意志(思食)。﹝注七﹞

One these four, the last mentioned 'mental volition' is the will to live, to re-exist, to continue, to become more and more. [9] It creates the root of existence and continuity, striving forward by the way of good and bad actions (kusalākusalakamma). [10] It is the same as 'Volition' (cetanā). [11] We have seen earlier[12] that volition is karma, as the Buddha himself has defined it. Referring to 'Mental volition' just mentioned above the Buddha says: 'When one understands the nutriment of mental volition one understands the three forms of 'thirst' (tamhā).' [13] Thus the terms 'thirst', 'volition', 'mental volition' and 'karma' all denote the same thing: they denote the desire, the will to be, to exist, to re-exist, to become more and more, to grow more and more, to accumulate more and more. This is the cause of the arising of dukkha, and this is found within the Aggregate of Mental Formations, one of the Five Aggregates which constitute a being. [14]

四者中最后一项的思食,就是求生、求存、求再生、求生生不已、繁衍滋长的意志:。﹝注八﹞它是造成生命延续的根本,以善恶等业使生命向前迈进。﹝注九﹞它就是‘思’。﹝注十﹞在前面已经说明过思就是业,这就是佛自己所下的定义。关于刚才提到的‘思食’,佛说:‘一个人能了解思食的意义,他就能懂得三种“渴(爱)”的意义。’﹝注十一﹞可知‘渴(爱)’、‘思’、‘思食’及‘业’等名词所表诠的,都是一样的东西,都是表示求生、求存、求再生、求日益繁衍、滋长、积聚。这就是苦之生起的原因。在构成众生的五蕴中,它是隶属于行蕴的。

Here is one of the most important and essential points in the Buddha's teaching. We must therefore clearly and carefully mark and remember that the cause, the germ, of the arising of dukkha itself, and not outside; and we must equally well remember that the cause, the germ, of the cessation of dukkha, of the destruction of dukkha, is also within dukkha itself, and not outside. This is what is meant by the well-known formula often found in original Pali texts: Yam kiňci samudayadhammam sabbam tam nirodhadhammam 'Whatever is of the nature of arising, all that is of the nature of cessation.' [15] A being, a thing, or a system, if it has within itself the nature of arising, the nature of coming into being, has also within itself the nature, the germ, of its own cessation and destruction. Thus dukkha (Five Aggregates) has within itself the nature of its own arising, and has also within itself the nature of its own cessation. This point will be taken up again in the discussion of the Third Noble Truth, Nirodha.

在佛教的教义中,这是最重要的精义之一。因此,我们必须明白记取苦之生起的原因、种子,只在苦的本身之内,而不在外。我们也须同样地记取苦之止息、苦之灭除的种子、原因,也是在苦的本身之内,而不在外。在巴利文原典里,时常可以看到一条人所熟知的公式:‘凡是有生的,亦必有灭。’﹝注十二﹞众生、事物、体制,凡其内在的本性是生起的、是从无到有的,其身内亦必含有自行息灭的种子。因此,苦(五蕴)之内,有它自行生起的本质,也就含有它自行息灭的本质。这一点在讨论第三圣谛——灭谛时,还会再谈到。

Now, the Pali word kamma or the Sankrit word karma (from the root kr to do) literally means 'action', 'doing'. But in the Buddhist theory of karma it has a specific meaning: it means only 'volitional action', not all action. Nor does it mean the result of karma as many people wrongly and loosely use it. In Buddhist terminology karma never means its effect; its effect is known as the 'fruit' or the 'result' or karma (kamma-phala or kamma-vipāka).

巴利文 Kamma和梵文 Karma(从字根 Kr 做、作而来),其字义是‘活动’、‘作为’。但在佛教的‘业’的理论中,它具有一个特别的意义:仅指‘有意的行为’,而不指有的行为。有许多人误用或滥用业字来表示业的效应。在佛学术语中,‘业’字决没有‘业的效应’的意思。业的效应,叫做业果或业报。

Volition may relatively be good or bad, just as a desire may relatively be good or bad. So karma may be good or bad relatively. Good karma (kusala) produces good effects, and bad karma (akusala) produces bad effects. 'Thirst', volition, karma, whether good or bad, has one force as its effect: force to continue-to continue in a good or bad direction. Whether good or bad it is relative, and is within the cycle of continuity (samsāra). An Arahant, though he acts, does not accumulate karma, because he is free from the false idea of self, free from the 'thirst' for continuity and becoming, free from all other defilements and impurities (kilesā, sāsavā dhammā). For him there is no rebirth.

意志(思)有相对的善或恶,如同欲望有相对的善或恶一样。所以业也有相对的善或恶。善业得善果,恶业得恶果。‘渴(爱)’、思、业,无论善恶,其结果都能产生一种力量,一种继续向善的或向恶的方向前进的力量。无论善恶,业果也是相对的,而且是存在于轮回之内的。阿罗汉虽然也有活动与作为,却不造业。因为他没有虚妄我执,没有烦恼不净,他已不受后有。

The theory of karma should not be confused with so-called 'moral justice' or 'reward and punishment'. The idea of moral justice, or reward and punishment, arises out of the conception of a supreme being, a God, who sits in judgment, who is a law-giver and who decides what is right and wrong. The term 'justice' is ambiguous and dangerous, and in its name more harm than good is done to humanity. The theory of karma is the theory of cause and effect, of action and reaction; it is a natural law, which has nothing to do with the idea of justice or reward and punishment. Every volitional action produces its effects or results. If a good action produces good effects and a bad action bad effects, it is not justice, or reward, or punishment meted out by anybody or any power sitting in judgment on your action, but this is in virtue of its own nature, its own law. This is not difficult to understand. But what is difficult is that, according to the karma theory, the effects of a volitional action may continue to manifest themselves even in a life after death. Here we have to explain what death is according to Buddhism.

业的理论,不可与‘道德的正义’或‘奖善惩恶’之说混为一谈。奖善惩恶与道德的正义,是以一个最高的主宰——上帝的观念为出发点的。上帝制造法律,君临众生,裁判是非。所谓‘正义’一词,意义含混。使用不当,危险甚大。假彼之名以危害人类者,实较造福为多。业的理论,就是因果的理论、动力与反动力的理论。这是自然律,与正义、奖惩的观念毫不相干。每一个有意的行为,一定有它的效应和结果。善业得善果,恶业得恶果。不是正义,不是任何‘人’或力量对你的行为加以裁判后所施于你的奖惩,而是因为这些行为的本质如此。这是它们本身的法则。这一点还不难懂。难懂的是:根据‘业’的理论,意志行为的效果,即使在人死后,在来生仍能继续呈现。在这里,我们必须依据佛教先解释一下,死倒底是什么?

We have seen earlier that a being is nothing but a combination physical and mental forces or energies. What we call death is the total non-functioning of the physical body. Do all these forces and energies stop altogether with the non-functioning of the body? Buddhism says 'No'. Will, volition, desire, thirst to exist, to continue, to become more and more, is a tremendous force that moves whole lives, whole existences, that even moves the whole world. This is the greatest force, the greatest energy in the world. According to Buddhism, this force does not stop with the non-functioning of the body, which is death; but it continues manifesting itself in another form, producing re-existence which is called rebirth.

前文曾说明:众生者,不过是肉体与精神力量(能)的综合。我们叫做死的东西,只是身体机能的全部停止而已。这身体机能停止之后,是否这一切的力量与能也全部停顿了呢?佛教说:‘不然!’对于生存、持续、繁衍的意志、愿力、欲望与渴爱,是一股极大的力量,大到足以推动整个生命、整个存在、整个世界。这是世界最大的力量、最大的‘能’。根据佛教,这力量并不因身体机能的活动停顿——死亡——而止息。它继续以另一形式呈现,而造成称为再生的后有。

Now, another question arises: If there is no permanent, unchanging entity or substance like Self or Soul (ātman), what is it that can re-exist or be reborn after death? Before we can go on to life after death, let us consider what this life is, and how it continues now. What we call life, as we have so often repeated, is the combination of the Five Aggregates, a combination of physical and mental energies. These are constantly changing: they do not remain the same for two consecutive moments. Every moment they are born and they die. 'When the Aggregates arise, decay and die, O bhikkhu, every moment you are born, decay and die[16] .' Thus, even now during this life time, every moment we are born and die, but we continue. If we can understand that in this life we can continue without a permanent, unchanging substance like Self or Soul, why can't we understand that those forces themselves can continue without a Self or a Soul behind them after then non-functioning of the body?

现在又生起另外一个问题:如果没有永恒不变的实体如‘自我’、‘神我’者,那末这个在死后仍能受有、仍能再生的是什么呢?在进一步讨论死后的生命之前,我们先来研究一下现生是什么?以及它如何持续?我们已经一再重复的说过,所谓生命乃是五蕴和合而成,是肉体与精神力量的综合。这些力量时刻在变,没有两个相续的刹那是相同的。每一刹那,它们生起又立刻死亡。‘五蕴生起、变坏、死亡的时后,比丘啊!那每一刹那,你也生起、变坏、死亡。’﹝注十三﹞所以在今生一生当中,每一刹那我们都在生了又死,死了又生,而我依旧继续存在。假使我们能够了解,在今生中,我们没有一个永恒不变的实体如‘自我’、‘神我’者,而能继续存在,为什么我们就不能了解在身体机能的活动停顿之后,这力量仍能不假助于‘自我’、‘神我’而继续存在呢?

When this physical body is no more capable of functioning, energies do not die with it, but continue to take some other shape or form, which we call another life. In a child all the physical, mental and intellectual faculties are tender and weak, but they have within them the potentiality of producing a full grown man. Physical and mental energies which constitute the so-called being have within themselves the power to take a new form, and grow gradually and gather force to the full.

物质的身体不再活动的时后,‘能’并不随之消失。它继续形成另外一种形态,就是我们叫做另一生命的东西。儿童的身体与心智机能都非常娇嫩、柔弱,可是其中却含有成长为发育完全的成人的势能。构成所谓众生的身心的能,其中即含有形成新色身、并使之逐渐长成及充份发育的力量。

As there is no permanent, unchanging substance, nothing passes from one moment to the next. So quite obviously, nothing permanent or unchanging can pass or transmigrate from one life to the next. It is a series that continues unbroken, but changes every moment. The series is, really speaking, nothing but movement. It is like a flame that burns through the night: it is not the same flame nor it is another. A child grows up to be a man of sixty. Certainly the man of sixty is not the same as the child of sixty years ago, nor is he another person. Similarly, a person who dies here and is reborn elsewhere is nether the same person, nor another (na ca so na ca aňňo). It is the continuity of the same series. The difference between death and birth is only a thought-moment: the last thought-moment in this life conditions the first thought-moment in the so-called next life, which, in fact, is the continuity of the same series. During this life itself, too, one thought-moment conditions the next thought-moment. So from the Buddhist point of view, the question of life after death is not a great mystery, and a Buddhist is never worried about this problem.

因为没有永恒不灭的实体,所以并没有任何东西可以从这一刹那度到另一刹那。因而,很明显的,也就没有任何恒常不变的东西可以从今生投向他生。生命只是刹那变化而相继不断的一个系列。这系列,实在讲起来,只是一连串的运动。它就像一朵彻夜长明的灯焰。(从初夜到天明)它既非同一焰,也不是另一焰。一个小孩成长为六十老翁。当然的,这六十老翁与六十年前的稚子不会一样,可是他也不是另一个人。同样地,一个人在此地死了,在另一个地方又生了下来;这两者既非同一人,亦非另一人。他仍是同一系列的继续。死与生的差别只在一念顷间。此生的最后一念顷,便决定了所谓下一生的最初一念顷。这下一生实际上仍是此生同一系列的延续。就在此生中,亦复如是。此一念顷便是构成下一念顷的要件。因此,从佛教的观点看,生死的问题并不是什么大神秘。佛教徒对这问题是素不挂怀的。 

As long as there is this 'thirst' to be and to become, the cycle of continuity (samsāra) goes on. It can stop only when its driving force, this 'thirst', is cut off through wisdom which sees Reality, Truth, Nirvāna.

只是求生、求存的‘渴(爱)’存在一天,生死相续的轮回,就将不停的流转。只有以智慧照见实相、真理、涅槃,将它的动力‘渴(爱)’切断了,这轮回才会停止转动。                                                                      

[1] Mhvg. (Alutgama, 1922), p. 9; S V (PTS), p. 421 and passim.

[2] Vedanāsamudayā tanhāsamudayo. M I (PTS), p. 51

[3] See p.53.

[4] Abhisamuc, p. 43, prādhānyārtha, sarvatragārtha.

[5] See Vibh. (PTS), p. 106 ff.

[6] M I (PTS), p. 51; S II p. 72; Vibh. P. 380.

[7] M I, p. 86.

[8] Ibid., p. 48.

[9] It is interesting to compare this 'mental volition' with 'libido' in modern psychology.

[10] MA I (PTS), p. 210.

[11] Manosaňcetanā' ti cetanā eva vuccati. MA I (PTS), p. 209.

[12] See above p. 22.

[13] S II (PTS), p. 100. The three forms of 'thirst' are: (1) Thirst for sense-pleasures, (2) Thirst for existence and becoming, and (3) Thirst for non-existence, as given in the definition of samudaya 'arising of dukkha' above.

[14] See above p. 22.

[15] M III (PTS), p. 280; S IV, pp. 47, 107; V, p. 423 and passim.

[16] Prmj. I (PTS), p. 78 'Khandhese jāyamānesu jiyamānesu miyamānesu ca khane khane ivam bhikkhu jāyase ca jiyase ca miyase ca.' This is quoted in the Paramatthajotikā Commentary as the Buddha's own words. So far I have not been able to trace this passage back to its original text.

注释:

一:见一九二二年阿陆葛玛版律藏大品第九页;巴利文学会版《杂部经》第五集第四二一页及其他各处。

二:见巴利文学会版《中部经》第一集第五十一页。

三:见《阿毗达摩集论》第四十三页。

四:见巴利文学会版《毗崩伽》(分别论)第一零六页以次各页。

五:见巴利文学会版《中部经》第一集第五十一页;《杂部经》第二集第七十二页;《毗崩伽》第三八零页。

六:见巴利文学会版《中部经》第一集第八十六页。

七:见巴利文学会版《中部经》第一集第四十八页

八:所谓‘思食’与现代心理中之libido(性本能、生命的泉源)可成一有趣的对比。

九:见巴利文学会版学《中部经》觉音疏第一集第二一零页。

十:见同书二零九页。

十一:见巴利文学会版《杂部经》第二集第一零零页。三种渴(爱)是(一)感官享受的渴求(欲爱),(二)生与存的渴求(有爱),(三)不再存在的渴求(无有爱)。前文集谛——苦之生起的定义中,业已列举。

十二:见巴利文学会版《中部经》第三集第二八零页;。《杂部经》第四集第四十七页及一零七页;第五集第四二三页及其他各处。

十三:根据《小部经》集觉音疏(巴利文学会版)第七十八页,此语系佛亲口所说。但著者迄未能查得其原文出处。


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