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若人静坐一须臾 If a Person Sits Quietly in Dhyana Samadhi for an Instant
 
[宣化老和尚开示 Venerable Master Hsuan Hua's Talks] [点击:2094]   [手机版]
背景色
若人静坐一须臾
If a Person Sits Quietly in Dhyana Samadhi for an Instant
 
沩山老人说:老僧打一坐,能消万两金。
The Old Man of Mount Wei said, when an old monk sits once in meditation,he is worth ten thousand ounces of gold.
 
你们美国人真是妙想天开,昨天讲的并不是说不叫你造塔,你造塔造得愈多愈好,造得恒河沙数那么多更好。可是这个塔,不是你说用妄想想造一个塔,是真有这个塔,真造出来的塔。不是说:「我这么想一想造个塔。」不是这个。恒河沙数的塔,用七宝来造成,你说这有多大的功德?这功德最大的。但是你若静坐一须臾,真能得到无心了,做了无心道人,那比你造恒河沙数那么多的宝塔还有功德。并不是说不叫人造宝塔,你愿意造宝塔,造多少都可以。这不是讲笑话,不是说租给你一个,租给我一个,租给他一个,不是这样子。宝塔怎么样租法呢?你租来做什么?
 
我们今天讲一个静坐一须臾的公案,给大家听一听。以前在中国湖南沩山有个灵佑禅师,就是沩山老人,他在沩山用茅草搭一个茅棚,在那儿住。住了几年了,就很多人都知道,这位老和尚、这位老人有道德、有修行,那么就很多人去见他。这个消息传来传去,就传到裴休的耳朵里头去了,他也去见一见这个老和尚。到那儿,和沩山老人一谈话,非常有缘,他就生出一种信心,「啊!你在这儿真是一个有道的高僧,但是你住这个茅棚这么破破烂烂的,又漏水又不挡风的,这太苦了。你造个大庙在这儿住啰!我给你拿钱。」当时一拿就拿了三百两银子。这三百两银子,当时大约造我们这么大的一个庙,可以造十个,因为那时候这个钱很值钱的,一分银子就能买很多东西。那么裴丞相做一个大护法来布施,出三百两银子。但是沩山老人那时候也没有safe(保险箱),也没有个箱子,也没有地方放,于是乎他就放到茅棚旁边草里头了。
 
那么等了三年,裴丞相又来见沩山老人了。到这儿一看,还是那个破茅棚,破破烂烂的,心里就想:「唉!这个和尚,我给他三百两银子,他干什么用了?是不是都买酒喝了?是不是都买肉吃了?奇怪!三百两银子不修庙,还住这么个破茅棚?」进来一见沩山老人,还是这个样子,那么他就和沩山老人谈,说:「前三年我布施给你三百两银子,叫你修庙,你怎么不修庙呢?你这个银子都干什么用了?」沩山老人说:「哦!这个银子嘛,你放到什么地方,你到什么地方去找去!」
 
他一想:「那时候没有地方放,就放到那草里了。」还是到草那个地方,一看,三百两银子还是在那个地方,动也没有动,也没有说是把它收起来放一个好的地方,怕人给偷去,没有。裴丞相一想:「哦!这真是一个有道的高僧,三百两银子,三年他动都不动,就放到那地方,哦!这个庙是要我给修了。」于是乎就自己又拿出来钱,一造就造了一个大庙,这个大庙一住可以住三千多人在那儿。
 
庙造好了,很多禅和子(这参禅的叫禅和子)。就来到这儿用功修行;那么就有两千多人。能住三千多人,现在有两千多人。裴休一看:「啊!这么多和尚都聚会到这个地方来,我叫我的儿子也来出家!」于是乎就送他的儿子来出家,他儿子是个翰林,很有学问的,就好像现在的老profesor(教授)的样子,很有学问的。那么送来出家,沩山老人就叫裴丞相这个儿子做什么呢?说:「你出家要先行行苦行,你做水头吧!这两千多人的水,你天天要担水。」那么一早起,两点多钟就要起身担水,担到晚间十二点。你们这坐禅是这样,他担水也是这样子。担来担去,担来担去,一担,担了几年。担了几年水,旁的什么也没有做,也没有一个时间看经,也没有一个时间来拜佛,也没有一个时间来念佛。他担水就是一边担水一边念佛,但是正式的看经、念佛,他没有机会,因为他是个沙弥,要行苦行。
 
 
 
那么担了几年水,他说:「咦!这个禅堂,他们这人都在禅堂里住,我看看禅堂里头是个什么情形?」于是乎,他就偷偷地到那个地方,把头伸进去望一望禅堂里边,偏偏这时候,啊!这个也打呼,那个也睡觉。他一看,怎么个个都是这样子,他说:「喝!我天天这么苦,挑水给你们喝,作饭给你们吃,我以为你们用功修行,原来你们都在这儿睡觉啊!凭我一个翰林给你们挑水,让你们来睡觉!」就觉得心里很不高兴了。
 
这一不高兴,方丈就派侍者叫他去见方丈,那么几年来他也没有见过方丈,也没有见过师父。这回去见师父,沩山老人说:「你把你的东西收拾收拾,你要走了,我这儿不留你了,不用你了,我迁你的单。」
 
裴休儿子说:「我犯了什么过了,你迁我单?」沩山老人说:「你犯了什么过啊?你为什么要说是这些个人都睡觉,你来做工,你一个翰林来挑水给这一些个睡觉的人作饭吃,你是不是打这个妄想?」他说:「是啊,那我看他们真都睡觉嘛!」沩山老人就说了,说:
 
「老僧打一坐」,老僧在这儿打一坐,「能消万两金」,你就一万两金子也都受得了的,何况你一个翰林挑水呢?你现在这样子,一点忍辱的功夫也没有,你要走了,我这儿不留你了。
 
这裴休的儿子法名叫法海,就跪到方丈和尚面前哀求,说:「不要迁我单,原谅我这一次啊。」方丈和尚说:「不行!你这种没有出息的人,不能原谅的,赶快给我起单,走!」那么起单就起单啰,把东西收拾好了,就问说:「那你叫我到什么地方去啊?我到什么地方去住呢?」沩山老人就给他拿了八个半钱,说:「你啊!什么时候把这八个半钱用完了,你就在那儿住了;你有半个钱呢,也不要住,就要走。」
 
那么这个法海拿了八个半钱就下山了,各处去化缘、乞讨,化饭吃,这八个半钱始终也不敢用。由这湖南一走,走到南京、镇江。到镇江那个地方要过江,他要过江到那一个山上去看看;这个摆船的人呢,也不和他要多钱,也不和他要少钱,就和他要八个半钱。那么八个半钱都没有了,到那个山上就不下山了,所以就在金山那个地方。
 
那个山就叫金山,原来不叫金山来着,叫什么山呢?这不可考。以后怎么叫金山呢?他到那个山上,看那个山有洞,他就在山上那个洞里住。住住洞呢,这个洞晚间就放光,他到那儿一看,原来有两缸金子在那个地方,他就用这个金子来在那儿造了江天寺。所以中国这个金山,就是因为他在那儿得了两大缸金子,所以叫金山了。这个寺的名字就叫江天寺。那么在那儿创了一个道场,到现在在中国这个道场也是很有名的。在坐禅的来讲,「金山的腿子,高旻的香。」
 
高旻寺坐香是一秒钟也不会错的,一定要有一定的时间。在金山住的人呢,都要练好这个腿子,都练得非常好,坐多久也不怕痛的,他那个腿子都坐熟了。在前几天有人坐得腿痛都哭起来了,我叫人如果腿痛的时候,可以站起来,站一站。这个方居士就说:「那么可以坐那个地方,把腿伸一伸,一秒钟也就不痛了嘛!」本来这个法可以的,但是因为你若叫人把腿伸到止单下边来,他就不会一秒钟了,不会一分钟!他把腿伸了,最低限度也要十分钟,或者二十分钟。伸了腿那时候不能用功的,那么为什么叫人站起来?站起来,大家都看得见的,你坐那儿伸着腿,有的人就看不见,他自己也面皮厚厚的,「不要紧,他也这样子嘛!」也就不觉得怎么样丑了。那么你若站着呢?「喔!人家都坐着,我站着不好意思,啊!赶快再坐下来。」是这样子,有这种情形,所以叫人站起来。实在受不了,你站起来;或者要睡觉,也站起来,这第一的你能把精神换一换,提起精神来;第二呢,也不会那么长久。
 
今天又有人说:「这个禅堂里很多动静,有人咳嗽,又有人打呼,又有人这么一动弹,这个止单就响了,很多动静。」这个是在什么地方都会有的,你没有这个动静,就有那个动静;没有那个动静,又有那个动静。你若会用功的人,有动静,你不为这个动静所转,不要跟着它那个动静,不要听着一个动静,你就跟着那个动静就跑了。说:「他这么真讨厌,令我也不能入定了!」就是他没有动静,你在这时候也不一定入定;你若入定,你就不会知道人有动静。
 
那么用功又要有忍耐,就是他有动静,也就要看看你在听见动静的时候,会不会心里不高兴,有没有忍耐力。这忍耐力,遇着什么境界都不动,这就是忍。你在闹市场中好修行,你若真是会用功的人,在什么热闹的地方,也一样用功。不过我们现在都是初参,方才开始,在闹市里头没有那么容易。但是很不容易找那么一个完全都是静的地方,你就是在山上,在深山里头静得不得了,啊!你自己和自己都过不去,自己对自己会发脾气的。
 
修道就是要能克服环境,无论什么环境,不要讨厌这个环境,说:「哦!这个环境不好,这个环境不好。」你到另外一个地方,比这个更不好,你另外再到一个地方更不好,天下就没有好的地方。你若是克服环境了,什么地方都一样。佛不择地而成,佛不是说选择一个地方他成佛,哪个地方都可以成佛的。
 
各位已经苦了六天了,还有明天一天,看看怎么样子。要脚踏实地,认真用功,认真叫这个功夫上路了,认识你的本来面目了。你若认识本来面目了,那时候腿也不痛了,腰也不痛了,非常自在,非常清凉。
  What I said yesterday was not telling you not to build pagodas; in fact, the more you build, the better. If you build pagodas to the number of Ganges' sands, then that's even better. But it shouldn't be that you just express your fantasy of wanting to build a pagoda. The pagoda must actually exist. You have to really build it, not just talk about wanting to build one. By building pagodas of the seven jewels in number like grains of sands in the Ganges River, you will derive great merit and virtue. But the merit and virtue obtained from sitting quietly in dhyana samadhi for even an instant and being truly without thought--becoming a person of the Way without thought--surpasses the merit and virtue obtained from building pagodas of the seven jewels in number like Ganges' sands. This is certainly not telling people not to build pagodas. If you want to build pagodas, you can build as many as you like. I'm not joking. After all, there's no way to rent a pagoda for you, or rent a pagoda for me, or rent a pagoda for someone else. That's not how it's done. How could a pagoda be rented, anyway? And why would you want to rent one?
 
Today I will relate a true account about "sitting quietly   for an instant." Long ago, Dhyana Master Ling You  and after several years many people came to know of him as a cultivator who had virtue in the Way. Many people came to pay their respects. lived on Mount Wei in Hunan province in China. He was known as "the old man of Mount Wei." He built a hut and cultivated on the mountain, and after several years many people came to know of him as a cultivator who had virtue in the Way. Many people came to pay their respects. When the news reached Prime Minister Pei Xiu, he too went to call on him.
 
As soon as he had a conversation with the Old Man of Mount Wei, he felt the affinities were very deep and, inspired by his faith in him, he thought, "You are really a lofty monk who has the Way! But you are living in such a shaky, broken-down hut. It leaks when it rains and the wind blows through it. It's too bitter! You can build a monastery here. I'll give you the money." On the spot he gave the Old Man three hundred ounces of silver. The value of silver at the time was such that three hundred ounces could have built ten monasteries like the one we are in now. [the former Gold Mountain Dhyana Monastery]. In those days a piece of silver could buy a lot of things. Prime Minister Pei Xiu, acting as a great Dharma Protector, offered up three hundred ounces of silver. But the Old Man of Mount Wei didn't have a safe, or a safety deposit box, or even a special place to put it in. And so Minister Pei Xiu simply set the money outside the hut in the grass and left.
 
Three years later, Prime Minister Pei Xiu returned to call upon the Old Man of Mount Wei and found him still living in the same shabby hut. He thought, "Oh! I gave this monk three hundred ounces of silver. What did he do with it? Did he use it to buy wine? Did he buy meat with it? How strange! Three hundred ounces of silver and he didn't build a monastery. He's still living in this broken-down hut!" He went in and saw that the Old Man of Mount Wei was just the same as before. And so he asked him,"Three years ago I gave you three hundred ounces of silver and told you to build a monastery. Why didn't you do it? What have you done with the money?"
 
The Old Man of Mount Wei said, "Silver? Where did you put it? Go look for it there." Pei Xiu thought to himself, "At that time there was no place to put it, and so I left it in the grass." Then he went to search in the grass and sure enough, the silver was still there. It hadn't moved an inch. The Old Man of Mount Wei hadn't even gathered up the money to put it in a safe place out of fear that someone might steal it. Prime Minister Pei Xiu thought, “Oh, he's really a lofty monk who has attained the Way. For three years he didn't even touch that three hundred ounces of silver. I should build the monastery for him.” Then he took out some more money and built a huge monastery that could house more than three thousand people.
 
After the temple was built, many monks who cultivated Chan meditation went there to cultivate. The monastery could house over three thousand people, and more than two thousand people had already gone there to reside. Pei Xiu thought, “Ah, so many monks are living here together. I will tell my son to leave the home-life.” Then Pei Xiu sent his son, a Hanlin scholar who was extremely learned--on a par with a present-day full professor--to leave the home-life.
 
What did the Old Man of Mount Wei tell this son of the Prime Minister to do? He said, "Since you have just become a left-home person, first you have to practice austerities. I appoint you water-carrier. You must haul water every day for the two thousand and some people who live here." Thus, he had to rise each day shortly after two o'clock in the morning and carry water all day long until midnight. You all sit in your Chan meditation; he hauled his water. Back and forth, back and forth he went, hauling water for several years. During those several years of hauling water, he didn't do anything else. He had no time to study the sutras, no time to bow to the Buddhas, and no time to formally recite the Buddha's name. His cultivation consisted solely of carrying water and reciting Buddha's name as he went. He did not have a fixed time to concentrate on studying the sutras, or any opportunity to recite the Buddha's name together with everyone else. He was a novice; he had to do hard work.
 
After carrying water for several years, he thought: "Everyone resides in the Chan hall. I'm going to take a look and see what goes on in a Chan hall. It just so happened that when he stole a peek into the hall, this monk was snoring and that monk was sleeping and the more he looked, the more he saw they were all like that. He said to himself, "Wow! I have been working so hard every day carrying water for you to drink and to use in cooking. All along I thought you were working hard at your cultivation. But, in fact, you've only been sleeping here. Really! Here I am a Hanlin scholar toting water so you have the opportunity to sleep!" He was extremely upset.
 
As soon as he got upset, the abbot sent an attendant to summon him. In all those years he had never seen his teacher. Now he had a chance to see his teacher and the Old Man of Mount Wei said to him, "Pack up your things and get out. We can't use you here. You are being kicked out."
 
Pei Xiu's son said, "But what have I done wrong? Why are you throwing me out?" The Old Man said, "What have you done! Why did you say that all those people were sleeping--that you came here and worked--you a Hanlin scholar hauled water to feed a bunch of people who like to sleep. Did you or did you not have those false thoughts?" He replied, "Yes! I saw them all sleeping in the Chan hall!" The Old Man of Mount Wei said,When an old monk sits once in meditation, He can digest ten thousand ounces of gold.
 
You wouldn't be able to handle even one ounce of gold how much the less can you stand being a Hanlin who hauls water. Just take a look at yourself, you don't have the least bit of patience. You'll have to go. I refuse to keep you here."
 
Pei Xiu's son, whose name was Fa Hai, then knelt before the abbot and begged, "Please don't kick me out! Please forgive me this time." The abbot said, "No! I can't forgive such a useless person. Pack up and get out fast!"
 
He was kicked out and that was that. After Fa Hai had packed his things, he asked, "Please tell me where I should go. Where should I live?" The Old Man gave him eight and half cents and said, "Dwell right where you happen to be when you have spent the last of this eight and half cents. As long as you have even a half a cent left, you should keep moving." Carrying that eight and half cents, Fa Hai went down the mountain. He begged for food as he traveled, because he dared not spend the eight and half cents. He went straight through Hunan to Nanjing. As he crossed the river at Zhenjiang, intending to climb the mountain on the other side, the ferryman didn't ask for more and didn't ask for less--he wanted exactly eight and half cents for the fare. Since all the money was spent for the fare, once he reached that mountain, he didn't leave. He stayed on Gold Mountain. That mountain was named Gold Mountain. Actually, originally it was not called Gold Mountain. What was its name? There is no way to trace it. Well, how did it come to be called Gold Mountain? When Fa Hai first arrived on the mountain he found a cave and lived in it. One night the cave radiated light. He went further into the cave to trace the source of the light and discovered two crocks full of gold there. He then used the gold to build Jiangtian Monastery. And so in China that mountain is named Gold Mountain because two full crocks of gold were discovered there by him.
 
He established a Way-place there and to this day, it is one of China's most famous Way-places when it comes to Chan meditation. The saying goes:Gold Mountain legs.Gaomin incense.
 
At Gaomin Monastery, the sitting periods are measured by the length of time it takes a stick of incense to burn, and they are never off by a second. At Gold Mountain, those who lived there got their legs well-trained for meditation--to the point that no matter how long they sat they didn't fear the pain. They had veteran legs! Several days ago someone couldn't stand the pain and cried. I've told you before that you can stand up for a while if your legs hurt. Someone suggested, "Stretch out your legs for a second while still sitting there in order to get rid of the pain." Basically that method is all right, but if you allow people to stretch out their legs in front of the Chan bench, they won't do it for just a second or just a minute. At the least they will stretch their legs out for ten minutes or even twenty minutes. Once you stretch out your legs, you can't work at your meditation. And so why do I suggest that people stand up? When you stand up, everyone can see you. If you sit there with your legs stretched out, some people are not going to notice it. And you can be thick-skinned and rationalize with yourself: "It doesn't matter--others are probably doing the same thing." In general, you won't feel so embarrassed. But what happens if you stand up? "Gee! Everyone else is sitting. It's embarrassing to be standing here. I'm going to hurry up and sit down." That's why I want you to stand up instead. If you really can't stand it or if you feel like going to sleep, you can stand up. That's the first reason I want you to stand: you can shift your energy and bring up your spirits. The second reason is that you won't do it for long.
 
Someone complained today that there is too much noise in the Chan hall. One person was coughing; somebody else was snoring; and another person wiggling, which caused the bench to squeak. The noise was intolerable! That can happen anywhere. You may try to avoid this noise, but another noise shows up. If you get rid of that noise, you'll become aware of another one. If you are someone who knows how to apply your effort, then whether it's noisy or quiet, you will not be turned by movement or stillness. Don't follow the noise and quiet--don't listen to the movement and stillness. If you follow the movement and stillness, then you will say: "He is really irritating! She makes it impossible for me to enter samadhi!" Even if the other person weren't making noise, you still might not be able to enter samadhi. If you can enter samadhi, then you are not even going to notice his movements.
 
Developing skill in meditation requires patience. Whatever state comes up, you should not move. That is what's meant by patience. Noisy places are good places for learning to cultivate. If you are really able to work at your meditation, then no matter how noisy the environment, you can still do your work. But now we are all new at meditation; we have just begun, and so it's not so easy for us to cultivate in such a noisy place. However, it is also not at all easy to find a completely quiet place. Even if you go to the top of a mountain where the stillness is profound, you still have yourself to deal with. You may get angry with yourself.
 
In cultivating the Way you must be able to overcome the environment. That's how you should be. No matter what the situation, don't despise your environment, saying: "Ugh, this is a terrible environment." Move somewhere else and it may be worse. Leave that place and go on to another and it may turn out to be worse yet, until there's no place in the universe that suits you. If you can overcome the environment, then everywhere is the same for you. The Buddhas don't choose the place where they realize Buddhahood. The Buddhas don't pick their place when they become enlightened. It's possible to realize Buddhahood anywhere.
 
We have already passed through six days. Tomorrow is the last day. Let's see how you do. You set yourself firmly to the task and intensely apply effort. Be determined to make progress in developing your skill, in recognizing your original face. When you recognize your original face, then your legs won't hurt and your back won't ache. You will feel extremely comfortable--very clear and cool.
 
 

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