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25 -TheMonk (Dh.360-382) 二十五、比丘品
 
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25 -TheMonk (Dh.360-382)

360. Good is restraint over the eye; good is restraint over the ear; goodis restraint over the nose; goodis restraint over thetongue. 361. Good is restraint in the body; good is restraint in speech; good is restraint in thought. Restraint everywhere is good. The monk restrained in every way is freed fromall suffering.

〈二十五、比丘品〉

〈360~ 361〉 360善哉制于眼,善哉制于耳,善哉制于鼻,善哉制于舌, 361善哉制于身,善哉制于语,善哉制于意,善哉制一切,制一切比库,解脱一切苦。 2

362. He who has control over his hands, feet and tongue, who is fully controlled, delights in inward development, is absorbed in meditation, keeps to himself and is contented --him do people call amonk. 遇见那独觉佛,当他发现独觉佛的钵装得满满时,便开始埋怨妻子。这 富翁也为了谋夺兄弟的财产杀害姪儿。由于他前世曾经布施给独觉佛, 所以今世仍然是一位富翁,但是他布施后又觉得后悔,所以他今世刻薄 自己。他谋财害人,使他七世都在地狱里受苦。现在虽然转世为人,可是他不累积善业,再堕入恶趣。 (cf.DhpA.v.355.,S.3.20.Aputtaka无子者

(2)﹐《别译杂阿含 60经》 《增壹阿含 23.4经》 ,《佛说菩萨本行经》,T3.109.3) 1安苦拉天神(Ankura)问差别。佛陀说,布施时要懂得识别;只有把 种子种在良田地里让它开花结果,才能获得更大的福报。 布施(﹐) 2五位比丘各自调伏五根的一根,他们自自己调伏的那一根最难修。佛陀 说,每一根同样都难修。

363. That monk who has control over the tongue, is moderate in speech, unassuming and who explains the Teaching in both letter and spirit--whatever thathe says is pleasing. 364. The monk who abides in the Dhamma, delights in the Dhamma, meditates on the Dhamma and bears the Dhamma well in mind --he does not fall away from the sublime Dhamma. 365. One should not despise what one has received, nor envy the gains of others. The monk who envies the gains of others does notattain tomeditative absorption. 366. A monk who does not despise what he has been received, even though it be little, who is pure in livelihood and unremitting in effort, him even thegods praise. unremitting︰不间断的。

362调御手足及言语,调御最高之头首,心喜于禅住于定,独 居知足名比库。 1

1有一位比丘善于投掷石头,能准确命中。有一天,他投掷一只大雁鸟, 该雁堕落后丧命。同伴目睹后,向佛陀报告。佛陀因此说了此偈。

363比库调于语,善巧而寂静,显示法与义,所说甚和婉。 1

364住法之乐园,喜法与随法,思惟忆念法,比库不复退。 2

〈365~ 366〉

365莫轻自所得;莫羡他所得。比库羡他得,不证三摩地。

366比库所得虽少,而不轻嫌所得,生活清净不怠, 实为诸天称赞。3

367. He who has no attachment whatsoever for themind and body, who does not grieve for what he has not --he is truly called a monk.

1提婆达多的党羽之一瞿迦梨迦 (Kokalika)因谤舍利弗与目犍连,堕红莲地 狱。S.6.10.说瞿迦利迦向世尊说:「舍利弗、目犍连是恶欲 (papiccha邪 淫)者,是受恶欲所支配者。」因此,离去后不久,全身生疮而死,堕红 莲地狱。 (cf. Sn.3-10.,A.10.89.,《别译杂阿含 106经》,《一卷 .杂阿 含 5经》,《大正 No.203.《杂宝藏经》第 28则「仇伽离谤舍利弗等缘」)

2佛陀宣告︰「四个月后即将般涅槃。」许多凡夫比丘生悚惧心,来亲近 佛陀,一伙人来讨论「我们该怎幺办?」有位达摩拉玛比丘 (Dhammaramo)依然保持正常的作息,不来佛陀的身边。其他比丘误解 他的心意,便向佛陀报告。达摩拉玛比丘于是恭敬地向佛陀解释,他对 佛陀最崇敬的就是在佛陀般涅槃之前,证得阿拉汉果。佛陀赞叹他:「做 得好!尊敬我的比丘,应该像你一样。只有真正法随法行 (dhammanudhammampatipajjantayeva)的人才是真正尊敬我的人。」 (与 166偈的故事同 )。

3佛陀一位弟子跟提婆达多的一位弟子友好,这位比丘在提婆达多谋害佛 陀不成之后,还去提婆达多的精舍住几天。有人向佛陀报告这位比丘的 行径。这位比丘辩称他没有接受提婆达多的教义。佛陀告诫他,即使这 样,别人也会误会是他的同党。

368. The monk who abides in universal love and is deeply devoted to the Teaching of the Buddha attains the peace of Nibbana, the bliss ofthe cessation ofall conditioned things. 369. Empty this boat, O monk! Emptied, it will sail lightly. Rid of lust and hatred,you shall reach Nibbana. 370. Cut off the five1, abandon the five, and cultivate the five. The monk who has overcome the five bonds is called one who has crossed the flood. 371. Meditate, O monk! Do not be heedless. Let not your mind whirl on sensual pleasures. Heedless, do not swallow a red hot iron ball, lest you cry when burning, “O this is painful!” 367若于名与色,不着我.我所,非有故无忧,彼实称比库。 2

1 The five to be cut off are the five “lower fetters”(五下分结 ): self-illusion, doubt, belief in rites and rituals, lust and ill-will. The five to be abandoned arethefive “higher fetters”: cravingfor the divinerealmswith form, craving for the formless realms, conceit, restlessness and ignorance. Stream-enterers and Once-returners cut off the first three fetters, Non-returners the next two and Arahats the last five. The five to be cultivated are the five spiritual faculties: faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom. The five bonds are: greed,hatred, delusion, false views andconceit.

2一位「五上施者」婆罗门 (Pabcaggadayaka)很不好意思供养佛陀已吃过一 部分的米饭,佛陀说︰剩饭无所谓。五上施者问佛陀如何定义「比丘」。 佛陀以偈颂回答。

〈368~ 376〉

368住于慈悲1比库,喜悦佛陀教法,到达寂静安乐, 诸行解脱境界。

369比库汲此舟水2,水去则舟轻快。断除贪欲瞋恚, 则得证于涅槃。

370五断及五弃,而五种勤修,越五着3比库──名渡瀑流者。

371修定莫放逸,心莫惑于欲!莫待吞铁丸,烧然乃苦号!

372.There is no meditative concentration for him who lacks insight, and no insight for him who lacks meditative concentration. He in whom are found both meditative concentration and insight, indeed, is close toNibbana.

1住于慈悲︰mettavihari慈住。DhpA.︰慈业处的作业,住于慈,生産第 三禅、第四禅 (tikacatukkajjhane,按︰阿毘达摩的分类方式为五禅 )。

2舟:喻身体。水:喻念头。

3「五断」,即五下分结:身见 (sakkayaditthi)、疑 (vicikkiccha)、戒禁取见 (silabbataparamasa(非正因以为因,非正道以为道的见解 )、欲欲 (kamaraga 五官的欲望 )、瞋恚 (byapada)。「五弃」,即五上分结:色界贪欲 (ruparaga)、 无色界贪欲 (aruparaga)、慢 (mana)、掉举 (uddhacca)、无明 (avijja)。「五 种勤修」,即五根:信、精进、念、定与慧。。「五着」,即五种执着: 贪、瞋、痴、慢、邪见。

373. The monk who has retired to a solitary abode and calmed the mind, who comprehends the Dhamma with insight, in him therearises a delight thattranscends all human delights. 374. Whenever he sees with insight the rise and fall of the aggregates 1, he is full of joy and happiness. To the discerning one this reflects the Deathless. 375. Control of the senses, contentment, restraint according to the code of monastic discipline --these form the basis of the holy life here for thewise monk. 376. Let him associate with friends who are noble, energetic and pure in life, let him be cordial and refined in conduct. Thus, full ofjoy, he will make an end ofsuffering. 372无慧者无定,无定者无慧。兼具定与慧,彼实近涅槃。 373比库入屏处2,彼之心寂静,审观于正法,得受超人乐。 374若人常正念:诸蕴之生灭,获得喜与乐,知彼得不死。

1 Aggregates (of existence) (khandha): the five groups of factors into which the Buddha analyzes the living being--material form, feeling, perception, mental formations, and consciousness.(佛陀分析有情为︰五蕴︰色、受、 想、行、识。 )

2 屏处:subbagara,空闲处或静处。

138

375若智慧比库,于世先作是:摄根及知足,护持别解脱。 376态度须诚恳,行为须端正;是故彼多乐,得灭尽诸苦。1

377. Just as the jasmine creeper sheds its withered flowers, even so, O monks, should you totally shed lust and hatred! 378. The monk who is calm in body, calm in speech, calm in 大迦旃延尊者 (Mahakaccana)在阿盘提国 (Avantijanapade)的拘卢城 (Kuraraghara)附近弘法时,有一位输屡那优婆塞 (SonoKotikanno)跟他出 家。输屡那比丘出家三年后,要到竹林精舍,经过家乡,她母亲以他的 名义筹备大布施会,请他在布施会中做开示。说法当中,有一群小偷闯 入她母亲的家,女仆三度来通知她的母亲,但是她母亲不再乎钱财被拿 走,她要听法。她母亲说的话被坐在附近的首领听到,首领以为拿走这 位有智慧,且高贵的女士的钱一定会被惩罚。当输屡那比丘说法完毕已 经是破晓,小偷首领率领手下向她的母亲认错,请求原谅。这群小偷明 白他们的恶行之后,就出家为比丘。

thought, well composed and who has spewn out worldliness -he, truly, is called serene.

379. By oneself one must censure oneself and scrutinize oneself. The self-guarded and mindful monk will always live in happiness. 380. One is his own protector, one is his own refuge. Therefore one should control oneself even as the trader controls a noble steed. 381. Full of joy, full of faith in the Teaching of the Buddha, the monk attains the Peaceful State, the bliss of cessation of conditioned things. 382. That monk who while young devotes himself tothe Teaching of the Buddha illumines this world like the moon freed from clouds.

scrutinize︰v.详细检查。

377如跋悉迦花1,枯萎而凋谢,汝等诸比库,弃贪瞋亦尔。

1跋悉迦花:vassika,茉莉花、夏雨花,据说此花之香胜过诸花香。

378身静及语静,心寂住三昧,舍俗乐比库,是名寂静者。 1

〈379~ 380〉 379汝当自警策,汝应自反省!自护与正念,比库住安乐。 380自为自保护。自为自依怙。汝应自调御,如商调良马。2

381比库具欢喜心,诚信佛陀教法,到达寂静安乐,诸行解脱 境界。

382比库虽年少,勤行佛陀教,彼辉耀此世,如月出云翳。 3

1沙塔卡亚长老 (Santakayatthera)的前世是狮子。狮子猎到食物后,会休息好几天。沙塔卡亚比丘的举止与狮子十分相似,坐着很少移动,如果移 动手脚的话,会伸懒腰 (kayavijambhita)。其他比丘认为他的举止怪异, 就向佛陀报告,佛陀听完他们的叙述后,说:「诸比丘!比丘的应该举 止沈着,如沙塔卡亚比丘。」

2犁家长老 (Navgalakulatthera难迦拉苦拉 )是一位穷人。有一天,一位比丘看见他穿破衣服耕种,就问他是否愿意出家。他答应了,他把犁和旧衣服挂在一棵树上去出家。出家后,他对比丘的生活不满,想还俗。每次生起这种念头的时候,他就到那棵树下去,并且谴责自己:「不知羞耻! 你还想还俗,穿旧衣,领薪过生活啊!」这样自责之后,他的不满就消失了。其他比丘问他为什幺经常到那棵树下?他告诉他们:「我去亲近 我的老师 (acariya)。」后来,他证得阿拉汉果,就不再去那棵树下了。 其他比丘问他:「你现在怎幺不再去找你的老师了呢?」他回答说:「我 以前去找老师,是因为有需要,但现在已经不需要了!」比丘们就向佛 陀查证,佛陀告诉他们:「难迦拉苦拉已经证得阿拉汉果了。」本则故 事跟 143-144偈的卑卢帝沙 (Pilotikatissa)的故事雷同。

3修摩拿沙马内拉 (Sumanasamanera)是阿那律陀尊者的弟子。虽然非常年轻,但由于累世以来的善业,他已经是阿拉汉了,并且具有神通力。



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