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贪爱生烦恼 Greed and Love Lead to Affliction
 
[宣化老和尚开示 Venerable Master Hsuan Hua's Talks] [点击:1062]   [手机版]
背景色

贪爱生烦恼

Greed and Love Lead to Affliction

世间人所贪的,佛不贪;世间人所爱的,佛不爱,

因为没有贪爱,就没有烦恼。

The Buddha doesn't crave the things that worldly people crave. The Buddha doesn't love the things that worldly people love. Since he is free of greed and love, he has no affliction.

佛陀虽为印度的太子,可是他对世间的富贵,深生厌离,愿意舍离国荣王位,出家修道。他也愿意令一切众生,知道世间法皆是妄想。这世界怎么成就的呢?就是由于众生的妄想而成的,将来也是由众生的妄想而毁坏,所谓「如是因,如是果。」

Although the Buddha was a prince in India, he was deeply weary of worldly fortune and honor. He wanted to renounce the glory of his royal position and leave the home-life to cultivate the Way. He wished to make all living beings realize that worldly dharmas are nothing but false thoughts. How did the world come into being? It was created by the false thoughts of living beings, and in the future it will be destroyed by the false thoughts of living beings. This is the correspondence between cause and effect.

世间一切都是无常败坏。菩萨也厌离世间法,佛更是厌离世间的一切法,不生一切染污和执着。佛是永远断弃世间人所有的一切贪心爱欲,世间人所贪的,佛不贪;世间人所爱的,佛不爱,因为没有贪爱,就没有烦恼。我们人的烦恼,是怎么生的呢?就因为「贪」和「爱」生出来的。若不贪,就没有自私;没有自私,也就没有烦恼。为什么要贪?就因为被欲念所支配,所以生出贪爱来;有了贪爱,不能遂心如意,就生出烦恼;有烦恼就有颠倒,有颠倒就有染污。修清净行,就是破除一切染污。

All things in the world are impermanent and subject to decay. Bodhisattvas detest worldly dharmas, and Buddhas detest worldly dharmas even more. They are not defiled by craving for them, and they are not attached to them. The Buddha has forever ended the greed, love, and desires that worldly people feel. The Buddha doesn't crave the things that worldly people crave. The Buddha doesn't love the things that worldly people love. Since he is free of greed and love, he has no affliction. Our afflictions come from our greed and love. Without greed, we won't be selfish; and without selfishness, we won't be afflicted. When we feel greed and love, and things do not go as we wish, we become afflicted. Once we are afflicted, we become muddled. Once we are muddled, we are defiled. When we cultivate pure conduct, we destroy all defilements.

佛时时刻刻都利益一切众生,佛在王宫时,不贪着一切爱欲和世间的荣华富贵;出家之后,他舍弃世俗的一切威势,不和人斗争与争论,他得到无诤三昧。所谓

争是胜负心,与道相违背;

便生四相心,云何得三昧?

佛住于无诤法。

The Buddha was able to constantly benefit all living beings. When the Buddha was still living in the palace, he did not covet sensual pleasures, nor did he crave worldly splendor, wealth, and honor. After he left the home-life, he completely renounced the behavior of worldly people. He refrained from contending and arguing with people, and thus attained the samadhi of non-contention. As it is said,

Contention involves thoughts of

 winning and losing;

It goes against the Way.

Thinking about the four marks,

How can one attain samadhi?

佛成就往昔所发的愿,具有无量的功德,他以大智慧的光明,灭除世间一切愚痴、一切黑暗;做世间众生无上的福田;时时都为一切众生,赞叹十方三世诸佛的功德,令一切众生,在三宝里种福、求慧、种一切善根。佛以智慧眼,见到一切真实的道理,又为一切众生,赞叹出家的功德。

The Buddha fulfilled the vows he had made in the past and became endowed with limitless merit and virtue. With the light of great wisdom, he eradicated all the stupidity and darkness in the world. He served as a supreme field of blessings for living beings in the world. On behalf of all living beings, he constantly praised the merit and virtue of all Buddhas throughout the ten directions and three periods of time. Thus he enabled all living beings to cultivate blessings, seek wisdom, and plant various roots of good¬ness by drawing near to the Triple Jewel. The Buddha used his Wisdom Eye to contemplate genuine truth. On behalf of all living beings, he also praised the merit and virtue of leaving the home-life.

出家是「出三界家」──欲界、色界、无色界;也是「出世俗家」,世俗就是世间俗人的家,出家也就是没有世俗的观念。又是「出烦恼家」,我们每一个人在世间,都住在这烦恼的家里,一发脾气,就觉得比吃什么珍馐美味更有味道,所以出家就要出这「烦恼家」。又要「出无明家」,无明就是无所明了,什么事情也不明白,所行所作颠颠倒倒,所以要出这个无明家。

Leaving home means leaving the home of the Three Realms: the Desire Realm, the Form Realm, and the Formless Realm. It also means leaving the home of an ordinary person in the world. One leaves behind one's worldly ideas. It also means leaving the home of affliction. Every person in the world dwells in the home of affliction. When we lose our tempers, we feel it tastes more flavorful than any delicious food we could eat. Therefore, when we leave home, we mean to leave the home of affliction. We should also leave the home of ignorance. Because of ignorance, we don't understand anything, and all of our actions and deeds are deluded. So we ought to leave the home of ignorance.

出家又有种种的分别,好像中国的出家人,有的因为年老,无依无靠,出家以后吃饭比较容易,所以就出家;有的被环境所迫而出家,或许犯了法、杀了人,就改名换姓,做一个出家人,王法也不管他了,找也找不到他了;有的小孩因为不容易养,就送到庙上去出家。

People leave the home-life for various reasons. For example, in China, some people leave the home-life because they are old and have no one to support them, and leaving home makes it easier to get meals. Others are forced by circumstances to leave the home-life. Perhaps someone has broken the law or committed murder, so he changes his name and leaves the home-life. Then the authorities pay no more attention to him, and they cannot track him down, either. Some children are sent to a temple to leave the home-life because their families have difficulty raising them.

以上这三种出家人,能不能修行?不知道,或者能、或者不能。又有一种是真为生死,发菩提心而出家的,这种出家人,如果不退心,就真能痛念生死发大菩提心,依照诸佛所说的法去修行,所以出家也有这种种不同的情形。可是出家后要清净过失,没有一切的过失,离过绝非,恢复本有的清净,永远出离三界的家、烦恼的家、无明的家、世俗的家。

It is not certain whether people who leave the home-life for the above three reasons will be able to cultivate. They may or they may not be able to. Finally, there is the person who leaves the home-life because he genuinely wants to end birth and death. If such a left-home person doesn't retreat from his resolve, he will be able to cultivate. Being painfully aware of birth and death, he will make the great resolve to reach enlightenment and cultivate according to the Dharma spoken by the Buddha. There are various situations under which people leave the home-life. After leaving the home-life, you should purify yourself of offenses and get rid of all your faults. Stay away from offenses and put an end to evil deeds. Regain your original purity. Leave the home of the Triple Realm, the home of affliction, the home of ignorance, and the worldly home forever.

问:为何没有女佛?

Question: Why are there no female Buddhas?

上人答:不是没有女佛,也有的。《法华经》上说得很明白;「龙女献珠,立地成佛。」龙女是女的,她把宝珠献给佛,便立地成佛。这证明女身也可以成佛,不过很少的。至于为什么做男人?为什么做女人?就因为欢喜。欢喜女人的念头多,就做女人;欢喜男人的念头多,就去做男人。这是受自己所造这种业的果报,这叫造业受报,自己跟着这个业转。

Answer: That's not quite true. As the Dharma Flower Sutra says, the Dragon Girl offered her precious pearl to the Buddha and immediately attained Buddhahood. This proves that those in female bodies can also become Buddhas; however, it is quite rare. As to why some are born to become men and others women, it's a question of personal preference. If one longs to be a woman, one will become a woman. If one likes to be a man, one will become a man. Your karma controls you, and you undergo the retribution of the karma you create.

然而也有人能支配自己的业,自己不随境界转,而能旋转乾坤,能把业转变过来,能做主。若是随业转,就不能控制;若能转业,就能控制。为何菩萨要发愿呢?就是为了控制自己不随业流转,有这一种大愿做支柱,就能转业。所谓「人能转业,而业不能转人;人能转境界,而境界不能转人;人能转果报,而果报不能转人。」所以这是可以控制的,可是要有智慧,才可以控制;若是尽愚痴、无明、做颠倒事,则不能控制。我问:「你为何要做颠倒事情?」你说:「不知道。」不知道,就跟着业跑了。

Nevertheless, some people can control their own karma. Instead of being turned around by a situation, they can turn the situation around. They can alter their karma and be their own masters. If you follow your karma, you are not in control. But if you can direct your karma, then you are in control. Why do Bodhisattvas make vows? Because they want to control the flow of their karma. Relying on their great vows as a foundation, they can direct their karma. In their case, they can control their karma, but their karma cannot control them. They can control states of mind, but states of mind cannot control them. They can control their retribution, but retribution cannot control them. One can control these things, but only with wisdom. Someone who is always stupid and ignorant and doing muddled things will not be able to control his karma. When asked why you do muddled things, you answer that you don't know. Your not knowing means you are being led by your karma.

并不是女人不能成佛,也不是说佛就是阳,鬼就是阴。不错,可以这么说,佛是纯阳,鬼是纯阴,人是半阴半阳的,不是男人就完全阳,女人就完全阴。如果男人是完全阳,就不必与女人结婚;如果女人是全阴,也不必与男人结婚。结婚之后,就变成半阴半阳了,不是纯的了。要是修行修到无漏,就是纯阳。男是阳,但阳中有阴;女是阴,但阴中有阳,所以结婚之后,可以生小孩子,都是阴阳变化,这不是绝对的,不是男人一定是阳,女人一定是阴。《易经》上说:

It is not the case that women cannot become Buddhas. You could say that Buddhas are purely yang and ghosts are purely yin. People are partly yin and partly yang. It is not the case that men are completely yang and women are completely yin. If men were completely yang, they would not need to marry women, and if women were completely yin, they would not need to marry men. After marriage, people become partly yin and partly yang and are no longer purely one or the other. When you reach a state of being without outflows, you are purely yang. Although men are yang, there is yin within the yang. Although women are yin, there is yang within the yin. Therefore, when a man and woman are married, they are able to have children: these are all transformations of yin and yang. It is not a fixed rule that men are definitely yang and women are definitely yin. The Book of Changes says,

一阴一阳之谓道,

偏阴偏阳之谓疾。

A balance of yin and yang is the Way.

An excess of either yin or yang is sickness.

要是偏一边就有毛病了,「不偏之谓中,不易之谓庸。」这是中庸之道。所以做男人的,不要以为我是阳。如果你是阳,那为什么你要结婚?一结婚就阳中有阴;女人结了婚,就阴中有阳了,这互相交换,这是阴阳问题。

An excess on either side will cause problems. What is not excessive in either direction is called the “middle.” What admits of no change is “constant.” This is the Way of the “constant middle.” Therefore, men should not think they are yang. If you were, why would you want to get married? After you are married, there is yin within the yang. After women are married, there is yang within the yin. There is a mutual interchange. That's yin and yang.

至于什么叫「人」?「人」只是个假名而已。以前我不是讲过很多次吗?我说:以前一开始人就叫做「人」,若是那时候把人叫做「狗」,那就叫狗了。因为叫久了,就成习惯了,所以「人」只是个名字而已。所谓一阴一阳为人,阴中有阳,阳中有阴。冬天里边藏着夏天,夏天里边又藏着冬天,冬至这一天是一阳生,夏至那一天是一阴生。所以一年也是阴阳,阴到极点就是阳,阳到极点就是阴了。我们人生来是阳,死了就是阴,这道理也是一样的。

As to what a person is, a “person” is merely a false name. We use the word “person,” but, when language was invented, if the word “dog” had been applied to people, people would be called dogs now. Names of things become habitual. So “person” is a mere name. It is said that one yin and one yang make a person. Within the yang there is yin, and within the yin there is yang. Summer is included in winter, and winter is hidden in summer. On the day of the winter solstice, yang is born. On the day of the summer solstice, yin is born. A year is divided into yin and yang. When the yin reaches an extreme, it becomes yang. When the yang reaches the utmost point, it becomes yin. When people are born, they are yang, and when they die, they become yin. It's the same principle.

所以你说我们叫做人,若是当初叫做鸡,人的名字就是鸡,叫惯了,就不觉为怪。好像小孩给他取个名字,叫小狗;长大后,谁叫小狗,他就知道是叫他,这只是假名而已。姓张的说:「我姓张。」问他为何姓张?他说:「因他爸爸姓张。」那他爸爸的爸爸又姓什么?也是姓张。爸爸的爸爸的爸爸往上追,追到不可追,那时候他姓什么?那就不知道了,因为这都是假的。

You say we are called “people,” but if in the beginning people had been called chickens, then we would be called by the name of “chicken.” After we became used to being called that, we wouldn't feel it was so strange. For example, if you give a child the name “Little Dog,” then when he grows up and someone calls out, “Little Dog,” he will know he is being called. That's just a false name, nothing more. If you ask a man named Smith why his name is Smith, he will say it's because his father's name is Smith. What was his father's father's name? It was also Smith. How about his father's father's father? Keep tracing the generations back until you can go no further. What was the first ancestor's surname? You don't know, because it's all false anyway.

所以人不要执着,说我怎么样,又怎么样。这都是有个「我」,有个「自私」,所以有烦恼。假如没有一个我,没有自私,那又有什么麻烦?人为何发脾气?就因为觉得别人对不起自己。对我有损害了,就发脾气;对自己有利益了,就高兴。这都是被无明的境界所转。

People shouldn't become too attached to being a certain way. The only reason we become afflicted is because of our ego and our selfishness. If we had no ego or selfishness, how could we have afflictions? Why do people lose their tempers? They feel others have done them wrong. When we take a loss, we get angry. When we gain some advantages, we feel happy. In both cases, we are being affected by the situations, due to our ignorance.

一九八二年九月一日开示

于万佛圣城

A talk given on September 1, 1982,

at the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas


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