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佛教对动物生命的态度 The Buddhist Attitude to Animal Life
 
[佛教徒信仰的是什么 What Buddhists Believe?] [点击:702]   [手机版]
背景色

The Buddhist Attitude to Animal Life

佛教对动物生命的态度

If we believe that animals were created by someone for men, it would follow that men were also created for animals since some animals do eat human flesh.

如果我们相信动物是为人类而生,同样的,人类也是为动物而生,因为,有些动物以食用人肉为生。

Animals are said to be conscious only of the present. They live with no concern for the past or future. Likewise, little children seem to have no notion of the future. They also live in the present until their faculties of memory and imagination are developed.

有些人认为动物只能意识到现在,没有过去,也没有未来。同样的,婴儿也没有未来的观念,他们生活在现在,一直到他们的脑力发展后为止。

Men possesses the faculty of reasoning. The gap between man and animal widens only to the extent that man develops his reasoning faculty and acts accordingly. Buddhists accept that animals not only possesses instinctive power but also, to a lesser degree, thinking power.

人类有思维能力,能以思维驾驭行动。人与动物的差别就在于思维能力。佛教相信动物不但有本能的生存能力,还有一定的思维能力。

In some respects, animals are superior to men. Dogs have a keener sense of hearing; insects have a keener sense of smell; hawks are speedier; eagles can see a greater distance. Undoubtedly, men are wiser; but men have so much to learn from the ants and bees. Much of the animal is still in us. But we also have much more: we have the potential of spiritual development.

在某些方面,动物超越人类。狗拥有超越人类的嗅觉,昆虫有敏感的听觉,鸟类能飞行并拥有超凡的视觉。毫无疑问,人类比动物要聪明。但是,人类从动物身上学习了很多东西。在人性中,还保有很多的「兽性」。更重要的是,人类拥有精神发展的潜力。

Buddhism cannot accept that animals were created by someone for men; if animals were created for men then it could follow that men were also created for animals since there are some animals which eat human flesh.

佛陀不接受动物是为人类而生的概念。如果动物是为人类而生,那么,人类同样是为动物而生,因为,有些动物以食用人肉为生。

Buddhists are encouraged to love all living beings and not to restrict their love only to human beings. They should practise loving kindness towards every living being. The Buddha's advice is that is not right for us to take away the life of any living being since every living being has a right to exist. Animals also have fear and pain as do human beings. It is wrong to take away their lives. We should not misuse our intelligence and strength to destroy animals even though they may sometimes be a nuisance to us. Animals need our sympathy. Destroying them is not the only method to get rid of them. Every living being is contributing something to maintain this world. It is unfair for us to deprive their living rights.

佛陀倡导的慈悲心,不仅是针对人类,而且是针对一切众生,佛教徒应该以慈悲心对待一切众生。佛陀告诫我们,我们没有权力伤害一切众生的生命,所有的众生都有平等生存的权力。动物和人类一样,有恐惧和痛苦的感受。杀害动物的生命,是一种错误的行为,我们不应该滥用自己的能力和智慧去杀害众生。即使有时候动物的行为令我们讨厌,但是,牠们的确需要我们的同情。杀害动物的生命,不是唯一摆脱他们的办法。每一个生命对世间都有一定的贡献,人类剥夺动物生存的权力,是一种不公平的做法。

In his Handbook of reason, D. Runes says:

D.鲁尼,在他的著作《理念的手册》里说道:

'We can hardly speak of morals in relation to creatures we systematically devour, mostly singed but sometimes raw. There are men and women who practise horse love, dog love, cat love. But these very same people would take a deer or a calf by its neck, slit its throat, drink the blood straight away or in a pudding, and bite off the flesh. And who is to say that a horse they cherish is nobler than a deer they feed on? Indeed, there are people who eat cats, dogs and horses but would use a cow only as a work animal.'

「我们很难说明,我们与那些一向来都被我们一口一口嚼咽的动物的道德关系。大部份时间,我们把它们屠宰了、煮熟了,然后吃掉,有时候还是生吃。这世间有很多人爱马、爱狗、爱猫,可是,他们同时抓住鹿、牛的颈项,割断它们的喉咙,吮吸它们的鲜血、吃它们的肉。这难道说,他们所锺爱的马,会比吃掉的鹿来得高贵?有些人甚至还吃狗肉、猫肉和马肉,并强迫牛只为他们工作。」

Some cry over a little bird or goldfish that expired; others travel long distances to catch fish on a nasty hook for food or mere pleasure or shooting birds for fun. Some go into deep jungle for hunting animals as a game while others spend a lot to keep the same animals at home as their pets.

有些人为自己所蓄养的小鸟或金鱼的死而恸哭。有些人长途跋涉的去捕鱼,有些人是为了吃,有些人是为了娱乐。有些人以打鸟为乐,有些人到深山去做狩猎游戏。有些人把猎物当宠物一样蓄养在家里。

Some keep frogs to foretell the weather; others cut off their legs and fry them. Some tenderly tend birds in gilded cages; others serve them for breakfast. It is all quite confusing. One thought stands out in a world where man clubs man for gain or sheer gore, there is hardly time to ponder over his morals in relation to animals.

有些人饲养青蛙来做科学实验,有些人切下青蛙的大腿来烹煮姜葱田鸡。有些人把鸟类关在鸟笼里,无微不至的照顾,有些人把牠当早餐。这些对动物的态度,令人混淆。人类只关心人与人的离合和战争,却没有时间去仔细思考人类与其它动物之间的道德关系。

Every religion advises us to love our fellow humans. Some even teach us to love them more if they belong to the same religion. But Buddhism is supreme in that it teaches u s to show equal care and compassion for each and every creature in the universe. The destruction of any creature represents a disturbance of the Universal Order.

每一种宗教都教导人类应该去爱护和关心人类,或者去爱护同一宗教的教友。可是佛陀却教导我们以慈悲心、平等心去对待一切众生。一切众生代表一切宇宙,也代表一切法。

The Buddha was very clear in His teachings against any form of cruelty to any living being. One day the Buddha saw a man preparing to make a animal sacrifice. On being asked why he was going to kill innocent animals, the man replied that it was because it would please the gods. The Buddha then offered Himself as the sacrifice, saying that if the life of an animal would please the gods then the life of a human being, more valuable, would please the gods even more.

佛陀非常清楚的教导,要以慈悲心对待一切众生。一天,佛陀发现有人准备以动物来祭祀,他问那么人,为什么要杀害生命呢?那么人回答,要获得神的庇佑。佛陀对那个人说,那你用我的生命来取代那无辜的生命吧,人的生命总比动物的命来得高贵,更容易获得神的庇佑。

Man's cruelty towards animals is another expression of his uncontrolled greed. Today we destroy animals and deprive them of their natural rights so that we can expend our environments for our convenience. But we are already beginning to pay the price for this selfish and cruel act. Our environment is threatened and if we do not take stern measures for the survival of other creatures, our own existence on this earth may not be guaranteed. It is true that the existence of certain creatures is a threat to human existence. But we never consider that human are the greatest threat to every living being on this earth and in the air whereas the existence of other creatures is a threat only to certain living beings.

人类残酷的对待动物,是因为欲望无法获得满足。今天,我们毁灭动物或剥夺动物的生存空间,却堂堂的以环境发展为理由。但是,我们已经为这种残酷和自私的行为付出代价。如果动物无法生存,那么人类生存的空间也无法获得保证。这是事实,其它动物的遭遇也将是人类的遭遇。我们不要以为人类比其它动物来得伟大,发生在其它动物身上的事情,永远也不会发生在人类身上。

Since every creature contributes something for the maintenance of the planet and atmosphere, destroying them is not the solution to overcome our disturbances. We should take other measures to maintain the balance of nature.

每一种动物都为生态环境做出贡献。毁灭牠们,等于毁灭我们自己的生态环境,造成大自然的不平衡。


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