站内搜索: 设为首页 | 加入收藏  [繁体版]
文库首页智慧悦读基础读物汉传佛教藏传佛教南传佛教古 印 度白话经典英文佛典随机阅读佛学问答佛化家庭手 机 站
佛教故事禅话故事佛教书屋戒律学习法师弘法居士佛教净业修福净宗在线阿含专题天台在线禅宗在线唯识法相人物访谈
分类标签素食生活佛化家庭感应事迹在线抄经在线念佛佛教文化大 正 藏 藏经阅读藏经检索佛教辞典网络电视电 子 书
怎样才能称为抵达‘涅槃流’? What is it to attain the Stream of Nibbāna?
 
[一问一智慧 Buddha-Dhamma for Students] [点击:1064]   [手机版]
背景色

(44)现在我要提出下一个问题:
“怎样才能称为抵达‘涅槃流’?”

44) Now I shall put the following question:

44) “What is it to attain the Stream of Nibbāna?”

  回想前面已讨论过的“涅槃”这个字,那是人类所能到达最好、最高的境界(参阅第29则)。在一期生命中,若人不去认识涅槃的境界,或不能体尝涅槃的法味,生命就虚掷了。

THINK BACK TO the word “nibbāna” in the sense already discussed, that is, as the highest good attainable by humanity (see No. 30). If, in any one lifetime, one does not come to know the state called nibbāna, or fails even to taste the flavour of nibbāna, that life has been wasted.

  “涅槃流”(the strean of nibbana)是指一种道迹——已达相当层次,确保只流向或趋向涅槃,流向苦的止息,而不再倒流回痛苦及恶道,我们称这道迹为“流”。

“Stream of Nibbāna” refers to a course that has reached the stage that ensures a flowing and tending only towards nibbāna. It flows towards the extinction of suffering, with no backflow in the direction of suffering and the Woeful States. We call this course “The Stream”.

  抵达“流”的人,称为“须陀洹”(sotapanna预流),须陀洹还未抵达究竟涅槃,他抵达与他本身相应的“现法涅槃”(ditthadhamma-nibbana)(参阅第27则)或“现世涅槃”(tadange-nibbana)。能抵达真正的涅槃流,就不会被世间的“味”、“患”或其他任何事物所迷惑,“世间”再也不能欺骗他了,这意思不是指须陀洹要放弃与世间相关的一切,或甚至放弃欲乐的享受,而是指他的心已看清这些事物,不会全心全意执著,虽然偶尔失去正念时仍会执著,但他有信心做到不执著。

One who has attained the Stream is a sotapanna (Stream-enterer). A sotapanna has not yet attained complete nibbāna. The Stream- enterer attains di..hadhamma-nibbāna (see No. 28), or tadanga- nibbāna (coincidental nibbāna), or whatever sort of nibbāna is appropriate in one’s case. But having attained the real Stream of Nibbāna, one will never again become attached to the assāda and ādīnava (bait and hook) of the world. The world never again will be able to deceive one. This doesn’t mean, for instance, that one gives up all connection with the world, or even all indulgence in sensuality. It means simply that one’s mind has begun to view these things as unworthy of grasping and clinging. It is practically certain that it will not grasp and cling, though it may still do so in occasional moments of unawareness.

  成为须陀洹,必须断除三结(samyojana)——身见结(sakayaditthi)、疑结(vicikiccha)、戒禁取结(silabbata-paramasa)。断身见结是断一种惑,断疑结是断另一种惑,而断戒禁取结是断第三种惑,他还没有断除欲贪(kama-raga)——第四种结,连斯陀含(sakadagamin)也没有彻底断尽。须陀洹还无法断除欲贪,仍可能接触或享受感官欲乐,但他不会掉进感官欲乐的陷井,而会循著圣人的正念去做。别忘了须陀洹已断除身见结、疑结和戒禁取结,这即是抵达涅槃流的基准,且最终必定会证得涅槃。

To be a sotapanna, one must give up three of the “fetters” (sa.yojana), namely belief in a permanent ego-entity (sakkāya- di..hi), doubt (vicikicchā), and superstition (sīlabbata-parāmāsa). To give up ego-belief is to give up one kind of delusion, to give up doubt is to give up another kind of delusion, and to give up superstition is to give up a third kind of delusion. He has not yet given up sensual desire (kāma-rāga), the fourth fetter. A sakidāgāmī (“Once-returner”, one stage more advanced than the sotapanna) has not altogether given it up either. This means that though one may not be able to give up sensual desire, still one does not fall right into the pit of sensuality. Though one may make contact with or indulge in sensuality, one will do so mindfully, as an ariyan. But don’t forget that one has given up ego-belief, doubt, and superstition. This is the criterion for one’s having attained to the Stream of Nibbāna and being certain to carry on toward nibbāna itself.

  所以,这是断见惑的问题,断欲贪之前必先断见惑。欲贪本身并不是危险可怕的问题或敌人,真正可怕的是“痴”。巴利经典中有这么一句话:所有事中最恶臭的是“慢”——自我膨胀,佛陀没有说感官欲乐是最恶臭的事,而说是“慢惑”。通常我们都高估了须陀洹断除感官欲乐的程度,一旦它的基准被误会成这样,一切都错了,而且无法(与真相)相符。所以,必定要认识抵达涅槃流的第一阶段——先断除的不是欲贪而是见惑。

So it is a matter of giving up misunderstanding. One must give up misunderstanding before giving up sensual desire (kāma-rāga). Sensual desire is not as yet a dangerous and terrifying problem or enemy. What is terrifying is delusion. In the texts there is a saying that the most putrid thing of all is a mind clinging to self, to ego. The Buddha did not point to sensuality as the most foul-smelling thing; he pointed to delusion. We generally tend to overestimate and overvalue the extent of a sotapanna’s giving up of involvement in sensuality. When its standard is thus misconceived, the whole picture becomes distorted and there is no way things can be brought into agreement. So it is essential that we know what it is to attain the first stage, the Stream of Nibbāna. Not sensual desire but ignorance is what must be given up first.

  “身见”由自我中心形成。以自我为中心的感觉,通常每天都会发生,它是由于我们不知空,甚至连显而易见的空相也无法察觉;是心就迷乱且不“空”,而产生身见,所以必须断除身见结,不让它再现,才能证须陀洹果。在一般情况下,身见生了又灭,生了又灭,生了又灭 ……每天一再出现许多次,但也有不出现的时刻,我们必须学习去认识有身见时像什么,空掉身见时又像什么,最后你会发现,当自我中心生起时就有身见。

Ego-belief (sakkāya-di..hi) consists in self-centredness. Self-centredness, as it normally occurs every day, comes from failure to perceive su..atā (emptiness) even in a crude way. The mind is confused and not free; consequently there is ego-belief. So to be a sotapanna one must give up ego-belief for good and all. In the normal course of events it arises and ceases, arises and ceases. Every day ego-belief is present many times, over and over. But there are also times when it is not present. We have to study what it is like to have ego-belief and what it is like to be free of ego-belief. When there is self-centredness, that is sakkāya-di..hi.

  “疑”是对什么是可信的产生怀疑或犹疑不决——是否要信仰佛陀?是否要为彻底灭苦的出世间而修行?因为有这种犹疑,就无法专注地关心“法”,甚至一天关心五分钟都觉得困难。相反地,却无时无刻不对吃喝玩乐、读书学习、生意工作等事情感兴趣。如果把戏笑的时间拿来培养对“法”的关心,我相信那一定会领悟得很快。
  最严重的怀疑是——采用佛陀灭苦的方法好吗?踏上灭苦之道好吗?有能力做到吗?大部分的人因为已被世间的诱惑弄糊涂了,而认为灭苦之道枯燥乏味、无趣、没有吸引力,这才是问题的关键,且是最严重的怀疑。我们正在受苦,要毫不犹疑地灭苦,所以,必须根除犹疑。

Now vicikicchā is doubt or hesitancy as to what may be taken as certain, hesitancy as to whether or not to believe the Buddha, and hesitancy as to whether or not to practise for the absolute and complete extincition of suffering on the supramundane level. Because there is this hesitancy, one is not sufficiently interested in Dhamma. It is hard to be interested in Dhamma even for five minutes a day. Yet one is interested in such things as fun and laughter, food and drink, study and learning, business and work, for hours and hours a day. If the time spent on fun and laughter were devoted instead to developing an interest in Dhamma, one would come to understand it quickly. The most important kind of hesitancy is hesitancy about whether or not it would be a good thing to adopt the Buddha’s means of extinguishing suffering. Indecision about setting out on the Path to the extinction of suffering constitutes a great problem and a great danger. Most people consider the prospect lacking in flavour, unpleasant, unagreeable, and devoid of attraction, because they are infatuated by the allurements of the world. So hesitancy must be eradicated. We are subject to suffering; we must be resolute about putting an end to suffering.

  第三种结是“戒禁取”,是由来已久的习惯性迷信。检视你自己,看看能发现那种一直存在的迷信行为。如你已被误导习惯性地害怕小壁虎或同类小动物,这是戒禁取结,它是原始的、幼稚的;你被教成要相信灵树、灵山、灵庙和灵屋,这些也全都是戒禁取结。
  总之,对自己所作的事有所迷信,事情本来应该如此,却弄成另一回事,这是戒禁取结。如行善应该是用来排除私心,却纵容行善增长私心,可见行善有时成了戒禁取结;有些出家众和在家众严守戒律,迷信到习惯成性,而演变成戒禁取结;至于我们所误解的某些事情,一直延续到今天,都还依然迷信着,这也算是戒禁取结。

The third fetter is sīlabbata-parāmāsa (chronic superstition). Have a look at yourself and see what sort of chronically superstitious behaviour is to be found in you. You have been taught to fear harmless little lizards and similar animals until it has become a habit. This is superstition. It is primitive and childlike. You have been brought up to believe in sacred trees, sacred mountains, sacred temples, sacred spirit houses: all this too is superstition. To sum up, sīlabbata-parāmāsa is superstition with regard to things one does oneself. Taking certain things which should be used in a particular way and using them in a different way — for instance, letting charitable deeds reinforce selfishness when they should be used to eliminate it — this is superstition. So there are charitable deeds which are superstition, and there is rigorous adherence to moral precepts by both bhikkhus and lay people which is superstition. Chronically superstitious and false understanding with respect to anything at all is covered by the term sīlabbata-parāmāsa.

  请容许我再提出一个第三种戒禁取结的例子:被刻划在寺院墙上的四恶道——地狱、畜生、饿鬼(peta)和阿修罗(asura)。我们被教导而相信临终时才可能坠恶道,却从来没人说我们天天坠恶道,这种恶道比寺院墙上的恶道更真实、更重要,千万别掉入!如果你现在不坠恶道,死后必定不会坠恶道。这个道理从来没人教过,所以,人未理解四恶道的核心和真正意义。

  佛陀不是个唯物论者,他不会以身为准则,以致于说地狱是一个用铜锅煮人或煎人的地方,佛陀以“心”为准则。

Please bear with me while I give just one more example of the third fetter: the four Woeful States, which are depicted on the walls of temples — hell, the realm of beasts, the realm of hungry ghosts (petas), and the realm of cowardly demons (asuras). These are known as the Four Woeful States. We are taught to believe that on dying we may descend into the Woeful States. We are never taught that we fall into woeful states every day. Such woeful states are more real and more important than those on temple walls. Don’t fall at all! If you don’t fall into these woeful states now, you will be sure not to fall into any woeful states after death. This is never taught, so people never get to the essence and real meaning of the words “Four Woeful States”. The Buddha was not a materialist. He did not take the body as his reference standard as does the story of the hell where one is boiled and fried in a copper pan. The Buddha took mind as his reference standard.

  现在我们想想“四恶道”是什么意思?

Now, let us see,  “What is the meaning of the Four Woeful States?”

  第一是地狱。地狱的意思是焦虑(泰文字义为“灼热的心”),当人经历像被火烧烤一样的焦虑时,当下就化生为地狱众生,这是“心灵的投生”。身体虽然仍居留人道,但焦虑一生起,心就坠入地狱,如因怕犯错,或因怕被处罚,或因担忧威望受损,或由于其他种种原因而产生焦虑,这就是地狱。

THE FIRST OF the Four Woeful States is hell. Hell is anxiety (in Thai, literally “a hot heart”). Whenever one experiences anxiety, burning, and scorching, one is simultaneously reborn as a creature of hell. It is a spontaneous rebirth, a mental rebirth. Although the body physically inhabits the human realm, as soon as anxiety arises the mind falls into hell. Anxiety about possible loss of prestige and fame, anxiety of any sort — that is hell.

  第二是畜生。人一生起不应该有的愚痴,就会投生为畜生;例如:不知法和涅槃值得追求,愚痴到不敢接触或亲近佛教,甚至认为若对佛法、佛教感兴趣,是种既落伍又怪异的行为,不但小孩这么想,父母亲也这样,他们尽可能远离“法”和宗教,这就是愚痴。不管那一种愚痴,只要一生起且被它控制,就等于化生为畜生,它也是“心灵的投生”,这是第二恶道。

Now rebirth in the realm of beasts is stupidity. Whenever one is inexcusably stupid about something: stupid in not knowing that Dhamma and nibbāna are desirable, stupid in not daring to come into contact with or get close to Buddhism, stupid in believing that if one became interested in Dhamma or Buddhism it would make one old-fashioned and odd. That is how children see it, and their parents too. They try to pull back and move far away from Dhamma and religion. This is stupidity. Regardless of what sort of stupidity it is, it amounts to rebirth as an animal. As soon as stupidity arises and overwhelms one, one becomes an animal. One is a beast by spontaneous rebirth, by mental rebirth. This is the second Woeful State.

  第三恶道是饿鬼,是一种长期饥饿的状态。因为所供应的物品始终无法满足他的欲望,这是指长期的心灵饥渴,而不是身体的挨饿。例如有人想获取一千铢,随后刚得到一千铢,马上就想获取一万铢;才得到一万铢,又马上想获取十万铢;刚得到十万铢,就想获取百万铢或一亿铢。这是个一直追逐但从未满足欲望的例子,它有长期饥饿的情形。腹大如山,口细如针,是饿鬼的表征,因为所吸取的从未满足他的饥饿感,所以一直是个饿鬼。

  与饿鬼恰好相反的是另一种人:他得到十沙丹[译注一],就满足只得十沙丹;得二十沙丹,就满足只得二十沙丹。但千万别以为这么容易知足,就会坠入衰途,不再追求;因为他有智慧,知道什么该做,且用适当的方法依次去做,他总是对所获得的感到满足,不但享受追求的快乐而且知足。这样就没有长期的饥饿,也就不是饿鬼,以烦恼追求事物的才是饿鬼;依智慧而追求,没有烦恼贪染,就不是饿鬼,只是做该做的事。

The third Woeful State is the condition of a peta, a ghost that is chronically hungry because his desires continually outrun the supply of goods. It is a chronic mental hunger which a person suffers from, not hunger for bodily food. For instance, one wants to get a thousand baht. Then having just got the thousand baht, one suddenly wants to get ten thousand baht. Having just got the ten thousand baht, one suddenly wants to get a hundred thousand baht. No sooner has one got the hundred thousand baht, it’s a mil Going after something intelligently is not craving: then one is not a peta; one is simply doing lion baht that one wants, or a hundred million. It is a case of chasing and never catching. One has all the symptoms of chronic hunger. One further resembles a hungry ghost in having a stomach as big as a mountain and a mouth as small as a needle’s eye. The intake is never sufficient for the hunger, so one is all the time a peta. The peta’s direct opposite is the person who, on getting ten satang *, is content with getting just the ten satang, or on getting twenty satang is content with twenty. But don’t get the idea that being easily satisfied like this means one falls into decline and stops looking for things. Intelligence tells one what has to be done, and one goes about doing it the right way. In this way, one is filled to satisfaction every time one goes after something. One enjoys the seeking and then is satisfied. This is how to live without being a peta, that is, without being chronically hungry. Going after something with craving constitutes being a peta. what has to be done.

  因此,希求灭苦的“欲”不是烦恼贪染。别把“欲”说成爱欲或贪染而误导别人,爱欲或贪染必定是来自愚痴的“欲”;甚至求证涅槃的“欲”,如果是由于愚痴——疯狂盲目地追求,而全然无知地修习内观,就是烦恼贪染,这无知将导致痛苦,因为它充满执著。反之,如果有人想证涅槃,他如实观照苦和灭苦之道,且正确、直接、认真地学习内观,这种想证涅槃的“欲”就不是烦恼贪染,也不是苦。所以,“欲”不全然是烦恼贪染,全看它源自何处,如果源于无明或烦恼,那追求无厌的现象就会像长期饥饿,这样处在长期饥饿的状态,我们称它为化生的饿鬼。

Thus, a wish such as the wish to extinguish suffering is not craving. Don’t go telling people the wrong thing, spreading the word that mere wishing is craving or greed. To be craving or greed it must be a wish stemming from stupidity. The wish to attain nibbāna is a craving, if pursued with foolishness, infatuation, and pride. Going for lessons in insight meditation without knowing what it is all about is craving and greed; it is ignorance that leads to suffering because it is full of grasping and clinging. However, if a person wishes to attain nibbāna, after clearly and intelligently perceiving suffering and the means whereby it can be extinguished, and in this frame of mind steadily and earnestly learns about insight meditation in the right way, then such a wish to attain nibbāna is not craving, and it is not suffering. So wishing is not necessarily always craving. It all depends on where it has its origin. If it stems from ignorance or the defilements, the symptoms will be similar to those of chronic hunger — that chasing without ever catching. We speak of this chronically hungry condition as spontaneous rebirth as a hungry ghost (peta).

  最后的恶道是阿修罗。首先解释“阿修罗”(asura)这个词:“修罗”(sura)意思是“勇敢”,“阿”(a)意思是“不”,“阿修罗”的意思即是“不勇敢”或“胆怯懦弱”。请大家注意:人一旦没来由地胆怯,就化生为阿修罗。例如惧怕无害的小蜥蜴、千足虫或蚯蚓,是不应该的,是一种痛苦;若人常有不必要的恐惧,或忧虑过多而生恐惧,就生为阿修罗。

  每个人都怕死,但我们会恐惧死亡是由于自己把真实情况以十万倍、百万倍夸大而成的,这种恐惧一直折磨人。人正因为害怕坠地狱,而成为阿修罗;于是就真的每天坠四恶道,日复一日、月复一月、年复一年。如果我们现在行为正当,不坠入这种四恶道,我们就能确保死后不会坠入刻画在寺院墙上的四恶道。

The last Woeful State is the realm of the asuras (cowardly demons). First to explain the word asura: sura means “brave”, a means “not”, thus asura means “not brave” or “cowardly”. Take it that whenever one is cowardly without reason, one has been spontaneously reborn an asura. Being afraid of harmless little lizards, millipedes, or earthworms is unjustified fear and a form of suffering. To be afraid unnecessarily, or to be afraid of something as a result of pondering too much on it, is to be reborn as an asura. We all fear death, but our fear is made a hundred or a thousand times greater by our own exaggeration of the danger. Fear torments a person all the time. He is afraid of falling into hell and in so doing becomes an asura. Thus he is actually falling into the Four Woeful States every day, day after day, month after month, year in and year out. If we act rightly and don’t fall into these Woeful States now, we can be sure that after dying we shall not fall into the Woeful States depicted on temple walls.

  这是告诉我们,如果知道佛陀所说的戒禁取结是怎么一回事,有何用意,就不会再迷信寺院墙上的四恶道了。这种造成混淆的四恶道的迷信说法,是不能契入正道的;由于不知四恶道的真相,使我们每天一再地坠入恶道。

  佛教徒最可悲的事是——错误地诠释佛陀的教导,并使用愚痴的方法修行。不必到别处寻找戒禁取结,相信寺院墙上的四恶道就是一种戒禁取结,。在经典中曾提到有人模仿牛和狗的行为,佛陀时代印度很盛行那种修行方式,那就是戒禁取结,最近不再有了,但正像他们一样愚蠢且更不值得的行为确实存在,必须要断除所有的戒禁取结才能入涅槃流。
  断除身见结、疑结、戒禁取结就入涅槃流、得法眼净——见法和断除见惑、愚痴。

This interpretation of the Woeful States agrees in meaning and purpose with what the Buddha taught. These sorts of false belief regarding the Four Woeful States should be recognized as superstition. The most pitiable thing about Buddhists is the inaccurate way we interpret the teaching of the Buddha and the stupid way we put it into practice. There’s no need to go looking for superstition in other places. In the texts there are references to people imitating the behaviour of cows and dogs; these were practices current in India at the time of the Buddha. There is no more of that these days, but behaviour does exist now which is just as foolish and much more undersirable. So give up all this superstition and enter the Stream of Nibbāna. To give up belief in a permanent ego- entity, to give up doubt, and to give up superstition is to enter the Stream of Nibbāna and have the Dhamma-eye — the eye that sees Dhamma and is free of delusion and ignorance.

  请记住!我们凡夫总有某种程度的愚痴与迷惑——身见、疑、戒禁取,我们必须向上提升,超越这三种愚痴以入涅槃流。从这点开始,有个斜坡能便捷地滑向涅槃,就像大石头沿着山坡滚下。
  如果你要熟识涅槃、涅槃流并修证涅槃,你就必须了解:断除欲贪和瞋恨之前,必须断除这三种迷惑和愚痴,而贪、瞋是更微细的结使。
  彻底断除这三种愚痴——自我中心(身见)、对确定生命目标犹疑不定(疑)、由来已久的习惯性迷信(戒禁取),就入涅槃流。

Bear in mind that in us worldlings there is always a certain measure of ignorance and delusion in the form of ego-belief, doubt, and superstition. We must move up a step and break free of these three kinds of stupidity in order to enter the Stream of Nibbāna. From that point on there is a flowing downhill, a convenient sloping down towards nibbāna, like a large stone rolling down a mountain- side. If you are to become acquainted with nibbāna and the Stream of Nibbāna, if you are to practise towards attaining nibbāna, then you must understand that these three kinds of delusion and stupidity must be given up before one can give up sensual desire and ill-will, which are fetters of a higher and more subtle order. Simply giving up these three forms of ignorance constitutes entering the Stream of Nibbāna. To completely give up self-centredness, hesitancy in pinpointing one’s life objective, and ingrained superstitious behaviour is to enter the Stream of Nibbāna. You can see that this kind of giving up is universally valuable and applicable to every person in the world. These three forms of ignorance are undersirable, Just as soon as a person has succeeded in giving them up he becomes an ariyan, a Noble One. Prior to this he is a fool, a deluded person, a lowly worldling, not at all an ariyan. When one has improved and progressed to the highest level of worldling, one must advance still further, until one reaches the stage where there is nowhere to go except enter the Stream of Nibbāna by becoming a sotapanna. Then one continues to progress and flow on to nibbāna itself.

  断除三结,对世界上每个人不但有价值,而且有功用,这三种愚痴是不受欢迎的,人只要成功地断除它们就成为圣人。在这之前他是个傻瓜,是迷惑的人,是低劣的层次就提升为圣人,接着一定会证得涅槃,它们的距离不会太遥远。
  当到达凡夫最高、最好的境界,除了朝向成为须陀洹的途径之外,没其他途径了,即是进入涅槃流,然后继续前进流入涅槃,而这就是断除三结,抵达涅槃流。
  这种不去执取“自我”与迷惑的修行,即是如实照见一切是不值得执著的,因为了知一切都不值得执取,就能断除犹疑不定、盲目执取和自我中心等恶习。所以,此刻我们就得开始在最适合自己的层次内,作意“不执著”。如果你考试不及格,不必哭,决心再出发且尽已所能;如果你已通过考试,也不必得意忘形,你该明了这很平常,这样就意味着你已稍微了解“不执著”。

The practice that leads away from grasping, self-centredness, and delusion is to observe all things as unworthy of being grasped at or clung to. This results in the eradication of hesitancy, blind grasping, and self-centredness. So we ought to start taking an interest in non-attachment right this very minute, each of us at the level most appropriate for us. If you fail in an examination there is no need to weep. Determine to start again and do your best. If you pass an examination you should not become carried away; you should realize that this is the normal way of things. This will then mean that there has arisen some understanding of non-grasping and non- clinging.

  当应考时,你应该忘记自己。好好注意!开始答题时,你应该忘记自己,忘记“我”将通过考试或考不及格。考试前,你可以预想如何按照计划进行以通过考试;但只要你一开始写,就必须忘记那一切,只有专注(定)分析问题找出答案,空掉通过或失败的“我”、“我所有”,心就会立刻轻快清净,快速记起、思考敏捷,所以专注(定)应考会得到好成绩。应考时,若应用“空心”或“不执著”的方法 ,你会得到好成绩。

When you are sitting for an examination, you should forget about yourself. Take good note of this! When starting to write an examination answer, you should forget about being yourself. Forget about the “me” who is being examined and who will pass or fail. You may think beforehand of how to go about passing the examination and plan accordingly, but as soon as you start to write, you must forget all that. Leave only concentration, which will pierce through the questions and seek out the answers. A mind free of any “me” or “mine” who will pass or fail immediately comes up agile and clean. It remembers immediately and thinks keenly. So sitting for an examination with proper concentration will produce good results. This is how to apply cit waang (a mind free of the self- illusion), or Buddhist non-grasping and non-clinging, when sitting for examinations. In this way you will get good results.

  不知利用这技巧的人常会担忧失败,他们太紧张而无法回忆学过的内容,无法写出正确而有条理的答案,结果他们彻底失败。

  另一种人被“我是卓越的,我必定会通过”的想法冲昏了头,被这种执著冲昏头的学生也必定考不好,因为他缺乏“空心”。
  有“空心”的人,内心没有“我”、“我所有”介入,所以不会恐慌或过度自信,只有维持专注(定)——自然的力量,完全忘记“自我”而能顺利通过考试。就“不执著”、“空心”的成果而言,这是初步的、最基本的例子。

Those who don’t know how to make use of this technique always feel anxious about failing. They become so nervous that they are unable to call to mind what they have learned. They can not write accurate and orderly answers. Consequently they fail thoroughly. Others become carried away by the idea that “I am brilliant, I am certain to pass.” A student carried away by this sort of grasping and clinging is also bound to do poorly, because he lacks cit waang. On the other hand, for the “person” with cit waang there is no “me” or “mine” involved, so he cannot become panicky or over-confident. There remains only concentration, which is a natural power. Entirely forgetting about self, he can pass well. This is an elementary, most basic example of the effect of non-attachment and of cit waang.

  现在愚蠢和迷惑的人一听到寺院讲堂提到“空”(sunnata)这个字,就解释成“虚空”或“什么都没有”,那是某些团体唯物论的观点所作的错误诠释。佛陀所说的“空”是:我们执著为永久实体或“自我”的一切都不存在,虽然,每件事物都仍完整地存在着,如果我们执著,就苦;如果不执著,就不苦了。

  世间是“空”的,因为没有什么可以被执取,我们必须以无执无著的心应对这“空”的世界。如果我们想要些什么,须以无执无著的心追求,这样我们会得到想要的东西,而不会使它成为痛苦的来源。

Now a stupid and deluded person, as soon as he hears the word su..ata mentioned in temple lecture halls, translates it as “utter emptiness or nothingness”. That is the materialistic interpretation and is how certain groups of people understand it. The su..ata of the Buddha means absence of anything that we should grasp at and cling to as being an abiding entity or self, although physically everything is there in its entirety. If we cling, there is dukkha; if we do not cling, there is freedom from dukkha. The world is described as empty because there is nothing whatsoever that we might have a right to grasp at. We must cope with this empty world with a mind that does not cling. If we want something, we must go after it with a mind free from grasping, so that we get the desired object without it becoming a source of suffering.

  光是误解“空”这个字,就是大迷信(戒禁取结),它不但会中断人的思考,而且是抵达涅槃流的大障碍。所以让我们正确地、彻底地了解“空”义和其他佛陀所用的字,因为没有任何东西可被当成“自我”,所以他说世间是“空”。佛陀曾回答莫伽(Mogha)国王的问题说:“时常观察世间为‘空’,时常观察世间所包含的一切为‘空’。”观一切为“空”,心会自动放下执著,而不再生起贪、瞋、痴,若能成功地止息贪、瞋、痴,就能成为阿罗汉,如果未成功,必须继续尝试,虽然仍是一般凡夫,将只剩下一点点痛苦。只要有“空心”,就不会产生痛苦,虽然失去正念时又会痛苦,但如果我们能好好守护心,持续地增长、扩充内心的“空”,就能体悟涅槃流,进入佛教的核心。

Misunderstanding the word “empty”, just this one single word, is a great superstition (sīlappata-parāmāsa) and constitutes a major obstacle to people attaining the Stream of Nibbāna. So let us understand the word “empty”, and all other words used by the Buddha, properly and completely. He described the world as empty because there is nothing in it which can be taken as a self or ego. He answered King Mogha’s question by saying, “Always regard the  world as something empty. Always look on this world with all that it contains as something empty.” Viewing it as empty, the mind automatically becomes free of grasping and clinging. There can not arise lust, hatred, and delusion. To succeed in doing this is to be an arahant. If one has not succeeded in doing it, one has to keep on trying; though still an ordinary worldling, one will have less suffering. No suffering arises as long as there is cit waang. Whenever one becomes carried away and lapses, there is suffering again. If we keep good watch, producing emptiness (of self-idea) more and more often and lastingly, we come to penetrate to the core of Buddhism, and come to know the Stream of Nibbāna.

[译注一]一百沙丹(satang)等于一铢。
* 100 satang equal 1 baht.


分享到: 更多



上一篇:佛陀的遗教是什么?What were the Buddha’s last instruction to us?
下一篇:我们必须认知到怎样的程度,才是‘如实知’?”To really know something, how much do we have to know?



△TOP
佛海影音法师视频 音乐视频 视频推荐 视频分类佛教电视 · 佛教电影 · 佛教连续剧 · 佛教卡通 · 佛教人物 · 名山名寺 · 舍利专题 · 慧思文库
无量香光 | 佛教音乐 | 佛海影音 | 佛教日历 | 天眼佛教网址 | 般若文海 | 心灵佛教桌面 | 万世佛香·佛骨舍利 | 金刚萨埵如意宝珠 | 佛教音乐试听 | 佛教网络电视
友情链接
中国当代佛教网 当代佛教故事网 当代佛教文化网 当代佛教圣地 当代佛教禅宗网 当代佛教新闻网 当代佛教舍利网 当代佛教净土网
当代佛教音乐网 当代佛教图片网 当代佛教素食网 当代佛教电影网 当代佛教藏经阁 当代佛教般若文海 当代佛教显密文库
金刚经 新浪佛学 佛教辞典 听佛 大藏经 在线抄经 佛都信息港 白塔寺
心灵桌面 显密文库 无量香光 天眼网址 般若文海 菩提之夏 生死书 文殊增慧
网上礼佛 佛眼导航 佛教音乐 佛教图书 佛教辞典

客服QQ:1280183689

[显密文库·佛教文集] 白玛若拙佛教文化传播工作室制作 [无量香光·佛教世界] 教育性、非赢利性、公益性的佛教文化传播
[京ICP备16063509号-26 ] goodweb.net.cn Copyrights Reserved
如无意中侵犯您的权益或含有非法内容,请与我们联系。站长信箱:alanruochu_99@126.com
敬请诸位善心佛友在论坛、博客、facebook或其他地方转贴或相告本站网址或文章链接,功德无量。
愿以此功德,消除宿现业,增长诸福慧,圆成胜善根,所有刀兵劫,及与饥馑等,悉皆尽消除,人各习礼让,一切出资者,
辗转流通者,现眷咸安宁,先亡获超升,风雨常调顺,人民悉康宁,法界诸含识,同证无上道。
 


Nonprofit Website For Educational - Spread The Wisdom Of the Buddha & Buddhist Culture